How to know if you have renfield’s syndrome

How to know if you have renfield's syndrome

Have you ever seen a pool of blood and found yourself getting thirsty? Have you ever said “I could eat a horse” and meant it? If so, you may be suffering from Renfield syndrome, a type of clinical vampirism that causes people to think that they’re real vampires, or that they’re running out of their own blood and need to replace it in order to survive.

Renfield (or Renfield’s) syndrome comes from the name of Count Dracula’s BFF, a raving lunatic who ate insects in the hopes of becoming a member of the undead, but the term is now used to discuss people who think they’re vampires, or who feel a pathological need to drink blood without qualifying themselves as a Universal monster.

This vampire disease afflicts such a small percentage of the population that you probaby don’t have to worry about, but if you enjoy the taste of blood, or you look to real vampires as role models, then you should check out all the symptoms of Renfield disease just to make sure that you don’t need to check yourself into a clinic immediately.

It’s safe to say that every modern vampire who actually drinks blood has some form of Renfield disease. They may not have the full-fledged schizophrenia that some sufferers have, but there is some bugaboo in their brains telling them to suck blood, nonetheless. Keep reading to discover how to spot the signs of Renfield’s disease in you and your friends.

An academic team views “Renfield’s syndrome” as a true neurological disease.

Posted November 21, 2012

How to know if you have renfield's syndrome

I first met psychologist Richard Noll in 1989 when I was writing a cover story for Psychology Today on the popularity of vampires. He’d examined accounts of clinical vampirism, and in a fang-in-cheek style, he “invented” a syndrome.

Author at the time of Bizarre Diseases of the Mind and Vampires, Werewolves, and Demons, Noll had noticed that some of these patients behaved like a demented character named Renfield from Bram Stoker’s Dracula.

He’s a delusional mental patient in a lunatic asylum who eats spiders and flies to absorb their life force. Dracula uses him to gain entrée before enslaving him. Noll saw this as a human counterpart to the vampire, so late one night in 1990 when he was writing his book’s introduction, he jokingly suggested that clinical vampirism be renamed Renfield’s syndrome.

“That was when we were all learning how to do Chinese menu checklist ‘DSM-Speak,’” he explained, “and I remember chuckling to myself when I thought of how I could do a pastiche of a DSM mental disorder centered on our good friend, Renfield.”

I found this amusing, so I interviewed him as the creator of this pseudo-diagnosis and included his ideas in The Science of Vampires – also fang-in-cheek.

Accordingly, people with symptoms of this syndrome are primarily male. For them, blood has a mystical quality, as if it can enhance their lives. In a pseudo-serious vein, Noll followed diagnostic protocol and identified a specific set of stages.

“The first stage is some event that happens before puberty where the child is excited in a sexual way by some event that involves blood injury or the ingestion of blood. At puberty it becomes fused with sexual fantasies, and the typical person with Renfield’s syndrome begins with autovampirism. That is, they begin to drink their own blood and then move on to other living creatures. It has…compulsive components.”

Neither of us took this seriously. Several documentary makers contacted me about it and I told them it’s just a joke.

Then, lo and behold, the Journal of the History of the Neurosciences published Regis Olry and Duane E. Haines’ article, “Renfield’s Syndrome: A Psychiatric Illness Drawn from Bram Stoker’s Dracula.” Well, that’s not totally funny, since they kind of usurp Noll’s idea (although they acknowledge that he coined the term and offered diagnostic criteria).

When he read the article, Noll said, “I’m continually amused and horrified by the monster I created on a whim. At this rate, it may very well end up in DSM-VI!”

These authors write quite seriously that the “etiology remains unknown.” Maybe that’s because Renfield’s syndrome doesn’t actually exist on any established professional lists.

But clinical vampirism does. Psychiatrists have long been aware of certain cases in which someone has a delusional notion that he or she is a vampire and therefore needs blood. This arises not from fiction and film but from an erotic attraction to blood and the idea that it conveys certain powers. It develops through fantasies involving sexual excitement.

During the mid-1880s, German neurologist Richard von Krafft-Ebing noted the sexual presentation of the attacks, in that they were compulsive and often aimed at a victim in a way that suggested lust. He included descriptions in Psychopathia Sexualis.

For example, a 24-year-old vinedresser who murdered a twelve-year-old girl in the woods, he admitted that he also drank her blood, mutilated her genitals, tore out and ate part of her heart, and buried her remains. There was also the man who cut his arm for his wife to suck on before sex because it aroused her so strongly.

Renfield, with his excitable “sanguine temperament,” is their fictional counterpart.

So, clinical vampirism has been around for a while. Calling it Renfield’s syndrome is just a more entertaining way to address it. But does “its symptomology obviously lead us to include it in psychiatrical and/or neurological diseases,” as these authors suggest? They do admit that popular characterizations fail to get at the root of the clinical condition and “rarely or never” offer treatment. Why, then, should we take it seriously?

Perhaps we need a little more bite before we embrace it.

Let me suggest an alternative. For The Science of Vampires, I invented a diagnosis as well. I called it vampire personality disorder (VPD). I included clinical vampires but also killers compelled by bloodlust and people who exploit the vampire image to act out fantasy scenarios in a way that harms others. I even described psychological vampires, who encourage a codependent relationship so they can use up others’ resources. Shouldn’t this get some traction?

But so far, no prestigious journal or diagnostic manual has taken VPD seriously. Maybe I should think of a better name. Perhaps Mina’s disorder or the Edward Cullen condition. How about Lestat’s lament? Dracula’s disease? I’ll keep working on that. Renfield’s syndrome is already staked out, but I welcome all other suggestions.

Articles On Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

  • What Is Carpal Tunnel Syndrome?
  • Symptoms
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatments
  • Prevention

How Do I Know if I Have Carpal Tunnel Syndrome?

Your doctor may use a handful of tests to diagnose carpal tunnel syndrome and rule out other causes of hand and wrist pain.

They’ll probably start with questions about your medical history. Then they’ll examine your hands, arms, shoulders, and neck to figure out if your pain results from another condition, like an injury or arthritis. They’ll also make sure your daily activities aren’t to blame.

The doctor may focus on your wrist to see if the area is tender, swollen, warm, or discolored. They’ll probably test each finger to see if you’ve lost any feeling. And they’ll check the strength of the muscles in your hand.

After that, they may do tests focusing on the median nerve, which runs through your forearm into your hand. When that nerve gets pressed or squeezed through the carpal tunnel, it causes carpal tunnel syndrome.

Carpal Tunnel Tests

Tinel’s Sign

The doctor will tap or press on the median nerve in your wrist with a reflex hammer. If your fingers tingle or if you feel an electric-shock-like sensation, the test is positive. You may have carpal tunnel syndrome.

Phalen’s Maneuver

This is also known as the wrist-flexion test. The doctor will tell you to press the backs of your hands and fingers together with your wrists flexed and your fingers pointed down. You’ll stay that way for a minute or two. If your fingers tingle or get numb, you have carpal tunnel syndrome.

Two-Point Discrimination Test

This means you can tell if two objects touching your skin are two distinct points instead of just one. The doctor may use a gadget called a 2-point disk-criminator, a small, flat, eight-sided tool with needle-like prongs sticking out from all sides.

They might do the test several times on each finger. They’ll start with two points touching your skin a few centimeters apart and move them closer together until you feel just one point of pressure.

The distance at which you can feel only one point will help them figure out nerve function and compression — two important components of carpal tunnel syndrome.

Nerve Conduction Velocity Test

This test provides some of the strongest evidence of carpal tunnel syndrome. It measures how fast an electrical signal can travel along a nerve or from the nerve to a muscle.

The doctor places a small electrode on your skin near your elbow. It sends a mild electrical current down your median nerve. The more time it takes for the current to travel from your elbow to your fingers, the more damage to your median nerve.

Electromyogram

This works like the second part of the nerve conduction velocity test. It measures how well the muscle around your median nerve works. The doctor places a small needle electrode into muscles in your hand and arm that get impulses from the median nerve. The needle sends electric impulses into the muscle. You relax and flex your hand several times. The doctor can tell if your median nerve is damaged or being squeezed.

The needles might hurt a little, but it should stop once the doctor takes them out. You may feel twitches or spasms from the electrical current. You could have some bruising where the electrode went in, but that should go away within a few days.

Ultrasound, X-ray, and MRI

Your doctor may order one of these tests to rule out other causes of wrist and hand pain. An X-ray can show arthritis or a broken bone. An ultrasound or MRI will show a swollen or compressed median nerve. They’ll also tell the doctor why it is being squeezed, whether it’s arthritis, carpal tunnel syndrome, or another reason.

They might also order lab tests, like blood work, to look for diseases like diabetes that can damage your nerves.

Other Physical Examination

Your doctor will also ask you about any patterns with your symptoms. For example, if you have tingling or numbness in your little finger, it may not be carpal tunnel syndrome since the median nerve doesn’t provide feeling to that finger. The doctor may also ask if you have a history of symptoms:

  • While holding your phone or a newspaper
  • At night
  • In the morning

These are all signs of carpal tunnel.

Show Sources

National Institutes of Health: “Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Fact Sheet.”

Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis: “Peripheral Nerve Surgery: A Resources for Surgeons.”

American College of Rheumatology: “Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.”

Mayo Clinic: “Carpal tunnel syndrome: Diagnosis,” “Electromyography: “What you can expect.”

If you’re plagued by self-doubt, you’re certainly not alone.

How to know if you have renfield's syndrome

Many high-achievers share a dirty little secret: deep down they feel like complete frauds.

They worry that they’ll be exposed as untalented fakers and say their accomplishments have been due to luck.

This psychological phenomenon, known as Impostor Syndrome, reflects is the core belief that you are an inadequate, incompetent, and a failure — despite evidence that indicates you’re skilled and successful.

Impostor Syndrome makes people feel like an intellectual fraud, rendering them unable to internalize — let alone celebrate — their achievements. Studies have shown this lack of self-belief is correlated with anxiety, low confidence, and self-sabotage.

From a psychological standpoint, Impostor Syndrome may be influenced by certain factors early in life, particularly the development of certain beliefs and attitude towards success and one’s self-worth.

Let’s take a look at exactly what thoughts run through the minds of people with Impostor Syndrome.

Do any of these apply to you?

1. “I’m a fake and I’m going to be found out.”

People with Impostor Syndrome believe they don’t deserve success.

They may believe about themselves, “I can give the impression that I’m more competent than I really am” or “I’m afraid my colleagues will discover how little I really know.” They fear being unmasked and having their perceived phoniness revealed.

Feeling as if they just narrowly escaped professional catastrophe time and time again creates a constant feeling of stress and anxiety that can color all of their work and relationships in a damaging way.

2. “I lucked out.”

Those who believe themselves to be impostors often attribute their accomplishments to luck. They may think, “I was in the right place at the right time” or “That was a fluke.”

These thoughts signal a fear that they won’t be able to repeat the success in the future, and speaks to a deep-seated belief that their achievement has nothing to do with their actual ability.

3. “If I can do it, anyone can.”

People with Impostor Syndrome think they’re nothing special. Whatever they’ve achieved, others can too.

They’ll think to themselves, “Oh, that was nothing. I’m sure my teammate could have done the same thing” or “I don’t offer anything special to the company that no one else could.”

The irony is that studies have shown that people who feel the effects of Impostor Syndrome most acutely have multiple advanced degrees and demonstrated track records.

4. “I had a lot of help.”

“Impostors” aren’t able to internalize their wins and find themselves deeply uncomfortable with praise.

As such, they often credit others for helping them. They may think back to when they had a hand in editing a presentation or coordinating a launch.

They may think, “This was really a team project. It wasn’t all me” or “Since I didn’t do this completely by myself, it doesn’t really count as a success.” They grasp on to any evidence that will confirm their unworthiness.

5. “I had connections.”

Networking is the best way to land new opportunities, no matter what your industry or goal.

But “impostors” believe that whenever they’ve gotten an assist through a professional connection, that discounts their achievement.

They’ll think, “This was entirely thanks to my investor’s hook-up” or “Since I wouldn’t have gotten my foot in the door without my uncle’s connection, it doesn’t really count.”

6. “They’re just being nice.”

Many “impostors” can’t accept praise at face value. They assume that the flatterer is just being nice.

They might believe, “They have to say that. It would be impolite not to” or “The only reason he’s congratulating me is because he’s a nice guy — not because I deserve it.”

7. “Failure is not an option.”

There can be a huge amount of internal pressure on “impostors” to avoid failure so they won’t be exposed as a fake.

Paradoxically, the more success “impostors” experience, the more pressure they feel because of the increased responsibility and visibility.

They think, “I have to give 300% to live up to this” or “I’ve got to work even harder than everyone else to prevent them from discovering who I really am.”

This becomes an escalating cycle in which they feel more frantic about proving themselves.

8. “I’m pretty sure” or “I kind of think”

“Impostors” use a lot of minimizing language because they don’t feel fully confident.

They might say out loud or think to themselves, “I’m not sure if this might work” or “I’m just checking in,” instead of nixing such belittling words as “might”, “just,” and “kind of.”

9. “I made it up as I went”

People with Impostor Syndrome often discredit their achievements by thinking or saying things like, “I totally BS-ed my way through that” because they feel their expertise isn’t justified.

Even if they accomplish something huge, they’ll write it off as not a big deal.

What To Do If You Struggle With Impostor Syndrome

Some of these thoughts may play on a loop in your head and contribute to the self-doubt that fuels Impostor Syndrome. They may be unconscious or you may be aware of the. You may identify with some of the above thoughts and feelings, but not others.

Either way, a great first step in overcoming Impostor Syndrome is to acknowledge the thoughts to yourself and even to other people.

Share your experiences with trusted friends, family, and colleagues. You’ll be surprised how many can relate.

An academic team views “Renfield’s syndrome” as a true neurological disease.

Posted November 21, 2012

How to know if you have renfield's syndrome

I first met psychologist Richard Noll in 1989 when I was writing a cover story for Psychology Today on the popularity of vampires. He’d examined accounts of clinical vampirism, and in a fang-in-cheek style, he “invented” a syndrome.

Author at the time of Bizarre Diseases of the Mind and Vampires, Werewolves, and Demons, Noll had noticed that some of these patients behaved like a demented character named Renfield from Bram Stoker’s Dracula.

He’s a delusional mental patient in a lunatic asylum who eats spiders and flies to absorb their life force. Dracula uses him to gain entrée before enslaving him. Noll saw this as a human counterpart to the vampire, so late one night in 1990 when he was writing his book’s introduction, he jokingly suggested that clinical vampirism be renamed Renfield’s syndrome.

“That was when we were all learning how to do Chinese menu checklist ‘DSM-Speak,’” he explained, “and I remember chuckling to myself when I thought of how I could do a pastiche of a DSM mental disorder centered on our good friend, Renfield.”

I found this amusing, so I interviewed him as the creator of this pseudo-diagnosis and included his ideas in The Science of Vampires – also fang-in-cheek.

Accordingly, people with symptoms of this syndrome are primarily male. For them, blood has a mystical quality, as if it can enhance their lives. In a pseudo-serious vein, Noll followed diagnostic protocol and identified a specific set of stages.

“The first stage is some event that happens before puberty where the child is excited in a sexual way by some event that involves blood injury or the ingestion of blood. At puberty it becomes fused with sexual fantasies, and the typical person with Renfield’s syndrome begins with autovampirism. That is, they begin to drink their own blood and then move on to other living creatures. It has…compulsive components.”

Neither of us took this seriously. Several documentary makers contacted me about it and I told them it’s just a joke.

Then, lo and behold, the Journal of the History of the Neurosciences published Regis Olry and Duane E. Haines’ article, “Renfield’s Syndrome: A Psychiatric Illness Drawn from Bram Stoker’s Dracula.” Well, that’s not totally funny, since they kind of usurp Noll’s idea (although they acknowledge that he coined the term and offered diagnostic criteria).

When he read the article, Noll said, “I’m continually amused and horrified by the monster I created on a whim. At this rate, it may very well end up in DSM-VI!”

These authors write quite seriously that the “etiology remains unknown.” Maybe that’s because Renfield’s syndrome doesn’t actually exist on any established professional lists.

But clinical vampirism does. Psychiatrists have long been aware of certain cases in which someone has a delusional notion that he or she is a vampire and therefore needs blood. This arises not from fiction and film but from an erotic attraction to blood and the idea that it conveys certain powers. It develops through fantasies involving sexual excitement.

During the mid-1880s, German neurologist Richard von Krafft-Ebing noted the sexual presentation of the attacks, in that they were compulsive and often aimed at a victim in a way that suggested lust. He included descriptions in Psychopathia Sexualis.

For example, a 24-year-old vinedresser who murdered a twelve-year-old girl in the woods, he admitted that he also drank her blood, mutilated her genitals, tore out and ate part of her heart, and buried her remains. There was also the man who cut his arm for his wife to suck on before sex because it aroused her so strongly.

Renfield, with his excitable “sanguine temperament,” is their fictional counterpart.

So, clinical vampirism has been around for a while. Calling it Renfield’s syndrome is just a more entertaining way to address it. But does “its symptomology obviously lead us to include it in psychiatrical and/or neurological diseases,” as these authors suggest? They do admit that popular characterizations fail to get at the root of the clinical condition and “rarely or never” offer treatment. Why, then, should we take it seriously?

Perhaps we need a little more bite before we embrace it.

Let me suggest an alternative. For The Science of Vampires, I invented a diagnosis as well. I called it vampire personality disorder (VPD). I included clinical vampires but also killers compelled by bloodlust and people who exploit the vampire image to act out fantasy scenarios in a way that harms others. I even described psychological vampires, who encourage a codependent relationship so they can use up others’ resources. Shouldn’t this get some traction?

But so far, no prestigious journal or diagnostic manual has taken VPD seriously. Maybe I should think of a better name. Perhaps Mina’s disorder or the Edward Cullen condition. How about Lestat’s lament? Dracula’s disease? I’ll keep working on that. Renfield’s syndrome is already staked out, but I welcome all other suggestions.

How to know if you have renfield's syndrome

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How to know if you have renfield's syndrome

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2 responses to “ Review: The Renfield Syndrome ”

Hey Jen, I’m planning on doing some major blog hopping catch-up at the beginning of the week but I wanted to let you know that I nominated your blog for the Harder, Better, Faster, Stronger award! I know you don’t always do awards but I thought you’d really like this one. Author Gini Koch put the award together to honor amazing blogs around the world and give them the opportunity to win some awesome prizes! You can see the rest of the details at my blog to see if you’re interested in participating! http://paperbackdaydreamer.com/2011/10/02/nominated-harder-better-faster-stronger-blog/

Hey Jenn, I’m so glad you enjoyed this one. I really liked the first one and have this on my wish list so it looks like I’d better get around to buying it soon.

It’s funny but I came here to tell you I’d tagged you for the Harder, Better, Faster, Stronger award & contest by Gini Koch and it looks like someone else has beaten me to it. Oh well, hopefully you won’t mind being tagged twice! You can find my blog post here:

How to know if you have renfield's syndrome

Elena: I do have a tendency of leaving my friends in a buddy read behind. BUT, all for a good reason. I just can’t help it! If you haven’t read this series, then smack yourself upside your head, cause you deserve it! Hehe. It’s such a crazy, suspenseful, mind-blogging series! Edge of your seat and biting your finger nail kinda good! I’m hanging by a thread here. Waiting for the next novel is complete torture! Grrrrrr.

Rhonda: If you’re a lover of PNR and UF, this series does not disappoint!! Vampires, Werewolves, and Demons OH MY!! Rhiannon strikes a bargain with a demon, and is catapulted 101 years into the future, to a demonic post apocalyptic New York in search of Disco, her oh so sexy vampire boyfriend, to try and fulfil her end of the bargain.

Elena: What Rhonda said above, I’d take her in on her opinion if I were you. I assure you, she’s not lying. After Rhiannon falls flat on her ass, into the future, 101 years later in NY, to a city she no longer recognizes. My first thought was, ” Oh No! She was suppose to go back and have more smexin with Disco”, My heart thumped, spasmed and skipped a beat at that thought. Back to the story. Who the hell does Zagan think he is? Yeah, I know, a creepy Demon that takes advantages of bargains and debts owed. Creep De-Lou Bastard. Back to the topic again. Rhiannon has to fulfill her part of the bargain, the bargain she made to Zagan. Which was to give one message to Disco. What message? Read it, and find out 😛 I can tell you one thing, “Mad shite goes down in this novel”!!

Rhonda: Saare’s writing is top notch, she tells Rhiannon’s first person POV is flawlessly. Her Characterization is awesome, from Rhiannon’s bad-ass, witty, “don’t fuck with bull, you’ll get the horns” personality. To Paine… who just made my heart ache. All the secondary characters were really well developed too. This ride was crazy good, biting lip, twisting fingers kinda awesome!

Rhonda: Okay, I’m gonna defend Disco here. That “Mind Invasion” was wrong, buuuuut. I don’t see any other way for him to believe in Rhiannon. Now Paine, he was really sweet, and I hope he gets his HEA, I was thinking about Jennifer, Rhiannon’s sister. What if Rhiannon has to take her to NY, and Paine finds the same. Traits in her that he finds in Rhiannon?? That would be awesome. But Disco is da bomb, for sure!! Now the wait is on for book 3. Gaaaaahhhh!! Mrs. Saare, you torture me, and I loved every page!!

Elena: You got a point there Rhonda. Everyone is in the wrong in this novel. But it is what it is and I LOVE this book for all those reasons. *rubs hands together* Paine and Jennifer? Nice thinking!!

Find out more about the sign and symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS) including a strong urge to move and trouble sleeping.

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Restless legs syndrome (RLS) can be tricky to diagnose, largely because symptoms tend to be worse at night and less obvious in the healthcare provider’s office.

RLS can appear or get worse during pregnancy, and is more common in those with conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, or anemia. But it can strike people without those problems too.

In 2012, IRLSSG: International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group developed five diagnostic criteria that must be satisfied to diagnose RLS as noted in a 2018 study in the journal Cureus.

If you think you might have RLS, read on to learn the signs and symptoms that are used to diagnose this treatable condition.

A Strong Urge To Move Your Legs

People who feel this urge say their need to move their legs is often accompanied by uncomfortable sensations.

Some words used to describe these sensations include creeping, itching, pulling, creepy-crawly, tugging, or gnawing.

Sometimes the urge to move occurs without the sensations described above. The arms or other body parts may also be involved in addition to the legs, as described in the 2018 Cureus study.

Symptoms Start or Get Worse at Rest

According to the 2018 Cureus study, the urge to move or unpleasant sensations begin or worsen during periods of rest or inactivity such as lying or sitting.

The longer you are at rest, the greater the chance the symptoms will occur and the more severe they are likely to be.

Moving Your Legs Improves Symptoms

If the uncomfortable sensations go away when you move or stretch your legs, it’s another sign of RLS.

The relief can be complete or only partial but generally starts very soon after starting an activity. Relief persists as long as the movement continues.

Symptoms Are Worse in the Evening

Symptoms worsening in the evening is another one of the criteria necessary for an RLS diagnosis.

If your symptoms aren’t worse at night, it may not be RLS. Some people with RLS, however, can have severe daytime symptoms too.

Nothing Else Could Be Causing Your Symptoms

The final criteria for a diagnosis of RLS is that your symptoms can not solely accounted for by another medical or behavioral condition, such as leg cramps or habitual foot tapping.

Supportive Criteria for Diagnosis of RLS

A substantial number of people who have RLS also have periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS). According to a 2021 study in the journal StatPearls, 80% to 90% of patients with RLS will have PLMS.

PLMS are repetitive movements that occur every 20 to 30 seconds on and off throughout the night and can cause partial awakenings that disrupt sleep.

If you feel like these symptoms or others make it hard to fall or stay asleep, you’re not alone—it’s often one of the chief complaints among people with restless legs syndrome.

Other supportive criteria for a diagnosis of RLS include a family history of RLS and a positive response to dopaminergic drugs, which are drugs used to manage RLS, according to Johns Hopkins Medicine.

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How to know if you have renfield's syndrome

Literature Text

The smell, the aroma, the reason why you are existing.
The taste, the texture, the reason why you are addicted.
The sight, the vision, the reason why you are believing.
That this gives you power.

The health, the cure, the reason why you are existing.
The sweet, the sour, the reason why you are addicted.
The hate, the love, the reason why you are believing.
That this gives you power.

You wake up, and you take a drink.
As you need your daily fix.
As you wake up, and you take a drink.
Is the reason why you are addicted.

The concern, the help, the reason why you are existing.
The disease, the filth, the reason why you are addicted.
The care, the faith, the reason why you are believing.
That this gives you life.

The doses, the jabs, the reason why you are existing.
The sips, the gulps, the reason why you are addicted.
The time, the effort, the reason why you are believing.
That this gives you life.

You open the bag, and you down it all.
As you need your daily fix.
As you open the bag, and you down it all.
Is the reason why you are addicted.

Your skin becomes pale, and your lips become weathered.
Your mind slowly cracks, and your eyes become darker.
Your body convulses, and your muscles collapse.

You look around, and you take it all in.
As you had your daily fix.
As you look around, and you take it all.
As you lick up the last of your own blood.

This condition is not typically diagnosed but could be affecting the health of many people.

This article has been archived. We will no longer be updating it. For our most up-to-date information, please visit our digestive health information here.

by Samantha Parent Walravens

My body never completely bounced back after I had my first child—15 years ago. I’ve told myself that my symptoms were part of being a busy mom: fatigue, digestive problems, joint pain, insomnia, low libido, even mild-grade depression. Many moms I know suffer the same ailments, or worse. They’ll subside at some point, I told myself.

My health care provider tested me over the years for various medical conditions—from anemia and thyroid disorders to mononucleosis and Lyme disease. The tests always came out negative. “You just need to sleep more and manage your stress better,” he told me.

I found an answer four months ago when I went to see Willie Victor, a nutritionist in Mill Valley, California, whose practice is based on the healing properties of food. She asked me to keep a food diary and take a blood test for food allergies and sensitivities.

The results were shocking. It turns out I was “highly sensitive” (not quite allergic, but almost) to a number of foods that had been a regular part of my daily diet—dairy, soy, sugar, caffeine and gluten.

She told me that I had “leaky gut syndrome,” a condition that is not typically diagnosed but could be affecting the health of many people. Dr. Robynne Chutkan, assistant professor of medicine at Georgetown University Hospital, says leaky gut “is likely to emerge as one of the most significant medical concepts of our time.”

What is leaky gut?

Leaky gut, or “intestinal permeability,” as Victor explained, is a condition in which the lining of the small intestine becomes damaged, causing undigested food particles, toxic waste products and bacteria to “leak” through the intestines and flood the blood stream. The foreign substances entering the blood can cause an autoimmune response in the body including inflammatory and allergic reactions such as migraines, irritable bowel, eczema, chronic fatigue, food allergies, rheumatoid arthritis and more.

With leaky gut, damaged cells in your intestines don’t produce the enzymes needed for proper digestion. As a result, your body cannot absorb essential nutrients, which can lead to hormone imbalances and a weakened immune system.

What causes leaky gut?

In many cases, leaky gut is caused by your diet. For me, certain foods that I was consuming every day, including gluten, soy and dairy, were being treated by my body as foreign invaders that had to be fought off. When I ate these foods, my body went to war, producing antibodies, which triggered an immune response that included diarrhea, headaches, fatigue and joint pain.

Leaky gut can also be caused by medications including antibiotics, steroids or over-the-counter pain relievers like aspirin and acetaminophen, which can irritate the intestinal lining and damage protective mucus layers. This irritation can start or continue the inflammation cycle that leads to intestinal permeability.

10 signs you have a leaky gut:

According to Dr. Leo Galland, director of the Foundation for Integrated Medicine, the following symptoms might be signs of leaky gut:

  1. Chronic diarrhea, constipation, gas or bloating
  2. Nutritional deficiencies
  3. Poor immune system
  4. Headaches, brain fog, memory loss
  5. Excessive fatigue
  6. Skin rashes and problems such as acne, eczema or rosacea
  7. Cravings for sugar or carbs
  8. Arthritis or joint pain
  9. Depression, anxiety, ADD, ADHD
  10. Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, celiac disease or Crohn’s

How to heal a leaky gut

The key to healing a leaky gut is changing your diet and eliminating the foods that your body treats as toxic. On the advice of my nutritionist, I eliminated gluten, dairy, soy, refined sugar, caffeine and alcohol. Within six weeks, I was feeling like a new person. My energy levels were way up, the diarrhea and bloating had subsided, and I was sleeping like a baby at night.

In addition to eliminating certain foods, I added a few things to help repair my leaky gut. These included healthy fats such as fish, coconut and olive oils; avocados and flax; probiotics to restore the healthy bacteria in my gastrointestinal tract; and L-glutamine, an amino acid that rejuvenates the lining of the intestinal wall.

Within three months, I had controlled my leaky gut. I have to adhere to my new dietary changes or I suffer the consequences—diarrhea, bloating and fatigue. But it’s a small price to pay for feeling so alive and healthy again!

If you have any of the symptoms I mentioned, get checked by your health care provider. I had sensitivities to certain foods, but your symptoms could be caused by other issues. It’s important to design a treatment plan that fits your issues.

Samantha Parent Walravens is a journalist, mother of four, and author of the New York Times–acclaimed book, TORN: True Stories of Kids, Career & the Conflict of Modern Motherhood. You can follow Samantha Parent Walravens on Twitter: @nosuperwoman.

Un-Dead and Kicking since 1994!

Psychiatrists are aware that there exists a behavior known as “clinical vampirism,” which is a syndrome involving the delusion of actually being a vampire and feeling the need for blood. This arises not from fiction and film but from the erotic attraction to blood and the idea that it conveys certain powers, although the actual manifestation of the fantasy may be influenced by fiction. It develops through fantasies involving sexual excitement.

Psychologist Richard Noll, author of Bizarre Diseases of the Mind, says that the clinical cases have a lot in common with the behavior of a character from Dracula named Renfield. He’s a mental patient who eats spiders and flies because he craves their life force. He suggests the clinical vampirism be renamed Renfield’s Syndrome. Noting that people who suffer from this condition are primarily male, he identifies a specific set of stages.

“The first stage,” Noll explains, “is some event that happens before puberty where the child is excited in a sexual way by some event that involves blood injury or the ingestion of blood. At puberty it becomes fused with sexual fantasies, and the typical person with Renfield Syndrome begins with autovampirism. That is, they begin to drink their own blood and then move on to other living creatures. That’s what we know from the few cases we have on record. It has fetishistic and compulsive components.”

How to know if you have renfield's syndromeSomeone who seemed to have this syndrome was Neville Heath, 29, England’s “Gentleman Vampire.” During the 1940s, he would pose as an army officer to lure women to hotel rooms. On June 20, 1946, a cabdriver saw Heath in the company of Margery Gardner, 33, who was found murdered the next day. She’d been suffocated and whipped unmercifully by something with a metal tip. Her nipples were bitten off and she’d been brutally raped with a blunt instrument. While her body was covered in blood, her face was clean, although blood was in her nostrils.

Since Heath had signed his name to the hotel register for that room, the police went right away to question him. But he was already on the run.

He checked into another hotel at a seaside town and hung out there for two weeks, posing as a war hero. He met Doreen Marshall, 21, and escorted her for an evening stroll on July 4. She then turned up missing. Five days later, her nude body was found in some bushes. She’d been cut up with a knife and sexually violated.

Oddly enough, Heath went to the police to offer his help. He feigned innocence in the case of Doreen Marshall and said that his name was not Neville Heath, but the police detained him so they could search some of his belongings. They found a braided whip that matched the patterns found on the first murdered woman. Heath also had in his possession a blood-soaked scarf that matched her blood type. Another one turned up in his drawer at the seaside hotel and that was matched to Doreen Marshall’s blood type.

Further investigation into his military record and personal history indicated that he’d participated in several incidents of sadistic behavior with women, although he was ever the gentleman with his naïve fiancé.

Arrested and tried for murder, Heath wanted to mount an insanity defense, but while the psychiatrists believed he was sadistic and perverted, they could not say that he was legally insane. Found guilty, he was sentenced to be executed.

While Heath may not have actually drunk blood from his victims (although there’s speculation that he licked it off Margery Gardner’s face), his possession of the blood-soaked handkerchiefs, along with the predatory and compulsive nature of his crimes, would qualify him for consideration as a clinical vampire.

Written by Katherine Ramsland.
Originally published online at The Crime Library.
Reproduced with the permission of the author.

How to know if you have renfield's syndrome

How to know if you have renfield's syndromeThe official status of clinical vampirism, otherwise called Renfield Syndrome, is currently popularized, though rarely emulated by criminals. Unfortunately, because of its rare appearance in society, it doesn’t actually appear in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The current version, the DSM-IV is a list of all mental disorders, that includes the criteria necessary for diagnosis; in other words, Renfield Syndrome aka clinical vampirism, is not recognized as an official illness, despite the active term being applied to occasional cases of psychiatric interest. The cases the term is applied to are usual those of serial killers and violent criminals who drink their victims’ blood. However, there are psychiatric references made to the disease.

For example, you may find the works of Richard Noll especially intriguing; he coined the term Renfield Syndrome, and discusses it in his book, Bizarre Diseases of the Mind. Noll named the disease after Dracula’s deranged victim, Dr. Renfield, who spent his time in the story locked within a prison-like mental facility, eating insects because he craved their life force. Noll claims that males are most often affected by the disease, and that it runs in stages. The first stage is an event in the male’s life before puberty, in which he is sexually excited by a bloody injury, or ingestion of the blood. The second stage is sexual fantasies about drinking blood during puberty, which eventually becomes auto-vampirism, –drinking one’s own blood. Inevitably, the individual suffering from Renfield Syndrome is tempted to try this on animals, which leads to drinking the blood of human beings.

There are only a few case files with which to study, making the disease rare, and hard to investigate, in terms of psychological interest. The book also touched on other extremely rare personality disorders, such as possession, and split- or multiple personalities, disease that modern psychiatry knows very little about. The sad fact is that for Renfield Syndrome to be more identifiable, and more easily diagnosed, there would have to be more cases of the illness to study. The more disturbing question lies in the modern vampire community; are these people suffering from a mental illness, or are they simply following a lifestyle that makes them happy? This editor plans to bring back a favorite interview subject; the vampire Merticus, to answer that question, and discover how the modern vampire community feels about the disease.

Hahahaha Jack My Swag!

Friday, October 28, 2011

HAPPY BIRTHDAY MATT SMITH.

How to know if you have renfield's syndrome

Sunday, October 23, 2011

This is the last day

Sunday, October 16, 2011

Guys and Dolls!!

Wow, I haven’t made a post in a LONG time! I’ve been too busy with Guys and Dolls to really do anything, but last night we had pictures, so I’ll post the best ones!

Well, that’s all for now! I promise to do more posts as soon as this play is over!

Sunday, October 2, 2011

Re: Stickaid

I don’t think I’ve ever been so tired in my life.

I watched Stickaid until 2:00 AM. I didn’t get to see the end but.
Your probably thinking that that was really stupid, and, new flash, it was.
I’m so tired, I can hardly sit up. I DO NOT have energy or the time to do a Monty Python or Crackula post considering that I leave for Stebens in 5 minutes so, it’ll have to wait.
In the meantime, enjoy this list of the Top 60 Ghetto Black Names. Look it up on Youtube.

60. Latifah
59. Shaniqua
58. Latoya
57. Laquisha
56. La’Kisha
55. La’Tanya
54. Rohandra
53. Bon’Quisha
52. Sha’Tanya
51. Toprameneesha
50. La’Quishria
49. Bonifa
48. Shataniana
47. Levondia
46. Bufanaquishria
45. La’Quishraniqua
44. Barbeesha
43. Mo’Nique
42. Abduiniana
41. Fo’Landra
40. Kisha
39. Bon’Qui’Qui
38. V’Lanta’la’mana’ma’nisha
37. Sha’Nay’Nay
36. Tay Tay
35. Da’Quonde
34. La’Trice
33. Deedra
32. Tramicia
31. De’Lanice
30. Ka’Likatifrianiqua
29. Sha’Londria
28. Sha’Quonda
27. Elephantisha
26. La’Quaysha
25. Guuuuuurrrrrrllllll
24. Qua’Lifriaqui’Sha’Niquia
23. Cornbreesha
22. Congratulashayla
21. Barackisha
20. Obamaniqua
19. Koolaidria
18. Spongebobeeshia
17. Clitorisandrea
16. Fa’Nay Nay
15. Comptonia
14. Harlemisha
13. Beethovenice
12. Watermelondrea
11. Cellularphoniqua
10. Unidastazovamerikaliqua
9. Alejandrisha
8. King’Kong’Quisha
7. Fri’Chickenisha
6. Colla’Greeniqua
5. Grapedrankisha
4. Africanishaniqua
3. Que’Shayda
2. La’Taniana’Bo’Vanashrianiqualiquanice
1. Courtney

Which is your favorite? Comment below.

Saturday, October 1, 2011

StickAID!!

So, I’m currently watching Stickaid 2011, Charlie just got off. Now, I’m posting about this because I don’t have a Twitter or Facebook so I cannot chat on there, so I must talk on here.
They’re doing music hour now, and I don’t know for how long I’m going to watch, I just don’t want to miss Charlie.
I’m tired but I promised Randy I would do a Monty Python post so I’ll do that next.
In the meantime, check these links:
Stickaid 2011 Info
Watch Stickaid 2011
The Playlist of Challenge Charlies

KK BYE NOW. STICKAID.

Friday, September 30, 2011

Today Was The Fun Day From HELL. By Ann

Ann had a “Fun Day” today at school. Here was basically all the life threatening things she was forced to do by the majority of common society.

Schedule of the Fun Day from HELL.
1:10-Had to go outside. Metaphorically stepped on Belzeneff and was put in a team in which they knew no one.
1:15-Tug-o-Torture (Tug-of-War)
1:45-Crapsket Ball (Basketball). Put to slavery by the Gremlin.
2:00-Walk 2,000 miles to the football field to play Frisbee Golf (Frisbee Golf). Lots of unnecessary running.
2:11-Fuck Tag (freeze tag)
2:16-Red Rover (Red Rover). Got smacked in the arm 15 times in the same place.
2:30-FLAG FOOTBALL (Flag Football).
3:00-Shoved inside to wallow in misery.
3:01-Forced outside to wait 15 hours for the bus.
3:16-Bus arrives.
3:17-Talk to Jenna about Fun Day From HELL.
4:30-Later continues to post Ann’s troubles on the Internet while listening to Potter Puppet Pals.

Thursday, September 29, 2011

So, I started my Dracula parody play today. It’s called Crackula. Well, writing it. I did character descriptions and I’ll post them in the next post.

And, as for Meme Monday, yeah, not gonna do that anymore. Didn’t work to well, so now I’ll just post Memes when I find a good one.

IMPORTANT NOTICE.
Even if you DO NOT have a Google account, you CAN IN FACT post comments. You just choose under “How to reply” menu “Anonymous” and you CAN post a comment. I would REALLY like to hear from you because I enjoy comments. Also, if I know who you are in RL, post who you are at the bottom of the comment, thank you.

I’ll try to squeeze in my Monty Python post next (Like I promised Randy), and then my Crackula character descriptions, though I might not get around to either this weekend. Sorry Randy. I SOLEMNLY SWEAR THAT (I AM UP TO NO GOOD) I WILL POST THE MONTY PYTHON POST THIS WEEKEND.

And, Rachel, my video thing wasn’t working, so I’ll make the Sebby video sometime in the next week.

It’s irrelevant that you’ve been working in your field for years; you’re living in fear of being outed as a fraud. A fake. A phony.

It’s imposter syndrome.

Imposter syndrome is the inability to internalize your successes, coupled with the fear of being outed as an unqualified fraud.

This fear of being exposed as inadequate and unqualified literally keeps you from achieving your best professional self.

You are not alone. In fact, nearly everyone has experienced a case of it at some time in their lives. So what keeps some people operating in fear while others can let it go? According to Valerie Young, author of The Secret Thoughts of Successful Women: Why Capable People Suffer From the Imposter Syndrome and How to Thrive in Spite of It, part of the solution is understanding the category of imposter syndrome that you have. Young lists five categories:

  1. Perfectionist
  2. The Superwoman/man
  3. The Natural Genius
  4. The Rugged Individualist
  5. The Expert

How Do I Know Which Imposter Syndrome I Have?

In her book, Young points out some identifying features of each kind of imposter syndrome. Though her book will give you a more accurate sense of where you stand, we crafted the following quiz around her descriptions in order to help you understand which form is your most dominant and how you can overcome imposter syndrome.

I saw no harm in preordering this

I respect your opinion, and not saying you are wrong, but in my opinion this does harm. All this is, is a big money grab and doesn’t keep the publishers/developers honest to do their best work.

Just too many companies do this now, and all it does is make companies lazy and not worry if the product they put out is any good since they already have our money. At least over 8 million people were smart enough not to buy Fallout 76 on release. It does seem people do know better now.

The way I see it, don’t give the companies any money. Only support them when they actually release an almost bug free game (yeah I know games have bugs, but I am talking about no game breaking bugs or major bugs, things that should be caught and fixed in QA). Then and only then should we give companies our money, not before.

Heck, just look at Stellaris. Paradox got people’s money and then the people complained how shallow it was on release and how buggy it was.

So what incentive does a developer/publisher have to make their game excellent or at least good on release when they already have our money?

Especially when it’s a year or more away. Yes you can always refund, BUT if it’s like another Watch Dogs 1 or Fallout 76, like a bait and switch, that is all we are doing, is supporting these kinds of business tactics.

Times are changing now, thing is, the change is slow. It is happening. 1 million less sales in Battlfield V, not sure how many less sales in Star Wars Battlefront 1 and 2. Over 8 million sales not sold for Fallout 76, not sure how underveloping Anthem is doing, but the small trickle has turned into a steady stream now. People are no longer accepting these busines practices and I will only get Blood Lines 2, if the PLAYER reivews are excellent.

Are you psychic? Could you develop clairvoyant skills or become a medium? There are some schools of thought which hold that we are all psychic to a greater or lesser extent, while others believe that only some people are born with natural psychic skills, or may develop them later in life. Whichever is true, there are some sure-fire signs that your own psychic abilities may be awakening, and that it’s time for you to look into psychic development.

How To Tell if You Are Psychic

If you ever wondered if you have real psychic ability or extrasensory perception, the following 15 signs will help you figure out if you have clairvoyance or intuition.

1. Spider Webs!

No, not literal spider webs, but the sensation that you have a cobweb on your face or that something is brushing against your skin. If this happens to you a lot, it can be a first sign of spirit trying to make contact with you.

2. Corner of the Eye Vision

All of us can report occasionally seeing something weird out of the corner of the eye. If you are becoming psychic, however, this will happen more and more regularly, and the “something” you think you see will become more defined – an actual person as opposed to a vague shadow or a flash of movement. It will still be gone when you turn your head to look, but it’s a good start.

3. Spirit Dreams

Our deceased loved ones often visit us in the dream state, as this is when our subconscious minds are at their most open. Developing psychics, however, not only receive more regular visits from their own loved ones, but may also find other people’s loved ones entering their entering their dreams asking for messages to be passed onto friends and family.

4. Erratic Temperatures

Have you become particularly sensitive to changes in temperature? Do you feel hot spots or cold spots which other people don’t seem to notice? Temperature changes are one of the most common ways for spirit entities to affect our own environment, and picking up on these is a very common first indication of a psychic awakening.

5. Sensing Emotions and Atmosphere

If you’re acutely aware of the atmosphere in a room when you walk into it, it’s your psychic senses picking up on information left in the room by its current or previous occupants. All of us have experience of there being an atmosphere “you could cut with a knife” following an argument, but this is a more subtle pick up of emotions and events which are not immediately obvious. You may also find this with objects – when you handle something which had just been held by a colleague or friend, so you get a sudden flash or insight into their state of mind? If you touch an old or historic object, do you get an instant vision of people from the past who were associated with it?

6. Random Memories

We all like a trip down memory lane, but if you find that your mind is suddenly taken back to a specific memory of a loved one, out of context and with no build up, then this can be a sign that this particular spirit loved one is around you and trying to communicate with you. The more often this happens, the stronger the sign.

7. Tricks of the Light?

A very common sign that psychic abilities are awakening is to see pricks of light in the air or to see orbs floating past you. You might also notice different colored lights around different people – you’re starting to see their aura. It’s important to rule out any vision problem which might be causing you to see lights, but if your vision is healthy then this can be an important wake-up call about your psychic abilities.

8. What’s That Smell?

The sense of smell is surprisingly useful to clairvoyants and mediums. Persistently getting a whiff or something out of place is a sure sign that you could go on to being psychic. Rule out rational explanations first and if you can, try asking for the smell to be taken away and then replaced a few moments later to test whether you really did smell it or not.

9. Who Said That?

Hearing voices is the first sign of clairaudience; the first time this happens to you it can be quite a shock, but more often than not it will happen gradually, with you not being quite sure whether you head something or not, or whether it was your imagination or not. Voices are not the only thing you might hear – it’s common to hear snatches of music where none is playing too.

10. Telepathy from Loved Ones

Have you ever sensed that someone was in trouble, only later to find out that you were correct? Living loved ones can also communicate with us across space and time, usually involuntarily, via telepathy. Such telepathic thoughts are strongest during a moment of crisis. If this happens to you, it’s evidence that you do have clairvoyance, which you could choose to further develop.

11) You know who’s on the other line right as the phone ring

This isn’t because of caller ID. We have all experienced this from time to time, but this is usually when we predict people who give us calls on a regular basis.

Some people experience this more than others, and if that is also your case, it goes beyond coincidence especially if you guessed a phone call that was from somebody whom you totally did not expect.

12) You can sense when someone close to you is in trouble

Call it a parent’s sixth sense, but most they often know when their child is in trouble. This is an ability all in itself. This feeling often goes beyond worry, because it is a persistent and intense feeling that almost always turns out to be true. These psychic connections are not only noticed in parents and children but between partners and spouses, siblings and most especially, twins.

13) You find out things by touching an object

Have you ever picked something up and just feel the energy flowing to you? It can happen! Sometimes you may feel overcome with knowledge about a certain object, like who the owner was, what its history was and how it came about. Or, you may find yourself shaking someone’s hand and finding out all you needed to know such as how they are like, where they are from and what they do.

14) You feel like you have been to a place even before you go there

Sometimes you find yourself in a new and strange place, but experience a gnawing and familiar feeling. Let us say you visit a certain city you have never been in, and go to an old building – and you feel as if everything about it is very familiar. This often happens when you go house hunting – and it seems as if you know every hallway, every room, what the whole space looks like, how it is decorated and what the details are. This instance may be caused by the fact that you have been there before but have just forgotten it, or it may be a case of deja vu, which can be psychic.

15) You regularly tell people something is bound to happen, and it does

Do you find yourself telling friends and family about experiences, dangers and future situations that they are bound to experience? Do these “predictions” usually turn out right? One can easily contents this, considering the fact that we know our friends and family well enough that it’s easy to predict what might happen to them. However, there are “predictions” that come out of nowhere, and are not based by how much you know about their personalities or their habits. It is often a very powerful feeling that compels you to tell them, and when this happens constantly, you might just have psychic abilities.

This quiz is to test you on vampires. These questions are pretty tricky for those of you that can’t tell the difference between Porphia and Renfields but it is pretty sweet when you read that you got the title “Ultimate Vampire Master”.

At the end you will be rated and split into groups from the lowly maggots and ankle biters all the way to Ultimate Vampire Master where you could join me and rule the world.

Created by: Chelsea

Remember to rate this quiz on the next page!
Rating helps us to know which quizzes are good and which are bad.

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Numbness, tingling, and discomfort in the hand and/or the ring and little fingers, especially when the elbow is bent, are the most prevalent symptoms of cubital tunnel syndrome.This is especially true when the elbow is bent.Rest and anti-inflammatory and painkilling medications are recommended for patients suffering from cubital tunnel syndrome.In addition, exercises could be of use.Surgical procedures could be necessary in specific instances.

How do you know if you have cubital tunnel syndrome?

The following are some of the symptoms of cubital tunnel syndrome: Difficulty moving your fingers when they are tingling or numb (falling asleep). You have been experiencing numbness in your hand and fingers, and it has been coming and going. Discomfort on the inside aspect of your elbow. Your hand and fingers experience a tingling sensation that comes and goes.

What is cubital tunnel syndrome (CTS)?

It is possible to experience numbness or tingling in the ring and small fingers, pain in the forearm, and/or weakness in the hand if you suffer from Cubital Tunnel Syndrome.This condition is characterized by the compression or stretching of the ulnar nerve, which is also referred to as the nerve of the ″funny bone.″ On the inner aspect of the elbow, there is a notch or groove that the ulnar nerve (Figure 1) follows.

How painful is cubital tunnel syndrome?

Pain, a lack of feeling, tingling, and/or weakness are all possible symptoms of cubital tunnel syndrome.The sensation known as ″pins and needles″ is typically experienced in the ring and tiny fingers.These symptoms are frequently experienced when the affected elbow is bent for an extended length of time, such as while one is sleeping or when one is holding a phone.Some people have the experience of being frail or clumsy.

What can be mistaken for cubital tunnel?

Another typical blunder is the assumption that cubital tunnel syndrome is the cause of any discomfort in the elbow. According to Dr. Becker, cubital tunnel syndrome accounts for just a small percentage of cases of elbow discomfort. Instead, arthritis or tennis or golfer’s elbow are the most prevalent causes of elbow pain.

What happens if cubital tunnel goes untreated?

In the event that Cubital Tunnel Syndrome is not treated, it might cause irreversible nerve damage in the hand. Symptoms such as intermittent numbness, tingling, and discomfort in the little finger, ring finger, and the inside of the hand are frequently described as being connected with cubital tunnel syndrome.

When is cubital tunnel severe?

Get in touch with your primary care physician if the signs and symptoms of cubital tunnel syndrome are very severe or if they have persisted for more than three months. It is essential to obtain therapy for cubital tunnel syndrome since the condition can cause the muscles in your hand to waste away, get weaker, and shrink, which can lead to clumsiness as well as further discomfort.

What does ulnar nerve pain feel like?

A feeling of tenderness or weakness in the hand. a tingling sensation in the palm, as well as the fourth and fifth fingers. Intolerance to the chilly weather. discomfort felt in the area of the elbow joint.

Should I go to the doctor for cubital tunnel syndrome?

On the other hand, cubital tunnel syndrome develops extremely late in the course of arthritis, which is a condition that seldom affects the elbow.Visit a physician if you have concerns that you may be suffering from cubital tunnel syndrome.Your doctor will conduct a physical exam and may also request nerve conduction testing in order to locate the area of the nerve that is being pinched or compressed.

How do I know if I have carpal tunnel or tennis elbow?

How can you determine that you already possess it? Tennis elbow is characterized by persistent discomfort, soreness, and inflammation on the outside of the upper forearm near the elbow. This condition is sometimes mistaken with carpal tunnel syndrome. The discomfort gets progressively greater and may start to spread down the arm toward the wrist as time goes on.

Can cubital tunnel syndrome heal on its own?

Many people will spontaneously acquire cubital tunnel syndrome, and it is common for there not to be a single identifiable source of the condition. When patients sleep with their elbows flexed, they increase their risk of developing symptoms. The conservative treatment option of wearing a night splint can often be effective in alleviating the symptoms of cubital tunnel syndrome.

How do you release a trapped ulnar nerve?

  1. Applying ice to the injured region for ten to fifteen minutes
  2. Using topical creams, including those containing menthol
  3. Putting an end to activities that are painful
  4. Taking frequent pauses when performing jobs that are repetitious
  5. Utilizing a splint or other type of brace
  6. Utilizing activities that promote relaxation
  7. Maintaining a warm temperature in the region
  8. Bringing the afflicted region to a higher elevation

What causes cubital tunnel to flare up?

When you bend your elbow, pressure is applied on the ulnar nerve that runs via the cubital tunnel. After being injured or subjected to repeated bending and squeezing, the nerve can become inflamed, also known as irritated.

How long does it take for cubital tunnel syndrome to go away?

The length of time required for recovery following surgery to relieve the cubital tunnel varies from patient to patient and can last anywhere from several weeks to many months. It might take as little as a week or as long as six months for symptoms such as tingling or numbness to go gone completely.

If you find a dead or dying bat:

    Contact your state wildlife agency, file an electronic report in those states that offer this service, e-mail U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service biologists in your area, or contact your nearest Fish and Wildlife Service field office to report your potential White-nose Syndrome (WNS) observations.

It is important to determine the species of bat in case it is a federally protected species. Photograph the potentially affected bats (including close-up shots, if possible) and send the photograph and a report to a state or U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service contact (above).

If you need to dispose of a dead bat found on your property, pick it up with a plastic bag over your hand or use disposable gloves. Place both the bat and the bag into another plastic bag, spray with disinfectant, close the bag securely, and dispose of it with your garbage. Thoroughly wash your hands and any clothing that comes into contact with the bat.

  • If you see a band on the wing of a bat or a small device with an antenna on the back of a bat (living or dead), contact your state wildlife agency or your nearest Fish and Wildlife Service field office, as these are tools biologists use to identify individual bats.
  • Learn more at the website for the White-Nose Syndrome Response Team, a partnership of North American agencies and organizations including the USGS.

    By: Latoya McGill

    Published: 27 July, 2017

    How to know if you have renfield's syndrome

    Your torso is the length between the base of your neck and the top of your hip bone. This length is typically proportional with your height. Your torso length would be considered longer or shorter than average based on how your measurements match up against the average length of torsos for your height range. Knowing whether or not your torso is considered short or long can help when purchasing back support or a backpack.

    Locate the bone at the base of your neck. This will be at the point where the slope of your shoulders meet your neck. Tilt your head forward to help you identify it easily.

    Ask you friend to place the end of the measuring tape at the point you located in step 1. Have them measure down the middle of your back, along your spine.

    Locate the base of your back. To find this location put your hands on your hips so that your thumbs are on your back.

    Ask your friend to measure from the base of your neck to the point you located in step 3 and have them write down the length.

    Compare the number your friend wrote down to these averages:

    male height: 5’7″ to 5’11,” torso length 17″ to 19″ female height: ” 5’2″ to 5’6,” torso length measurement of 15″ to 17″

    If your height falls above or below these averages compare your torso measurements to this standard, with extra small and small being a short torso, medium being average, and large being long torso:

    Extra Small: torsos up to 15 ½” Small: torsos 16″ to 17 ½” Medium/Regular: torsos 18″ to 19 ½” Large/Tall: torsos 20″ and up

    The idea that you can die from a broken heart might seem far-fetched, but according to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), b roken heart syndrome, is a real, life-threatening condition.

    Also known as stress-induced cardiomyopathy or takotsubo cardiomyopathy, broken heart syndrome has been speculated among celebrities such as the actress Debbie Reynolds, who died one day after her daughter Carrie Fisher, and Johnny Cash who died within months of his wife, June Carter Cash, as The Guardian reported. It’s also been romanticized in movies such as “The Notebook,” in which Allie and Noah die together while holding hands in their sleep.

    Although broken heart syndrome isn’t always fatal, it is a serious condition that can happen to anyone. Here’s how to distinguish emotional heartbreak from literal heartbreak.

    Broken heart syndrome is a heart muscle failure that is usually caused by a stressful event.

    The condition, which is brought on by sudden and intense chest pain, can lead to severe, short-term heart muscle failure, according to the American Heart Association. The syndrome occurs when a surge of stress hormones temporarily disrupt pumping in part of the heart. The disruption “stuns” the left ventricle while the rest of the heart continues to function normally, or with even more forceful contractions, according to Harvard Medical School.

    The stress hormones could be triggered by traumatic events such as the death of a loved one, a breakup, physical injury, or by positive events like winning the lottery or being surprised at a party, according to the American Heart Association.

    Individuals with broken heart syndrome typically begin experiencing symptoms anywhere from a couple of minutes to a few hours after the sudden stress, according to John Hopkins Medicine.

    The syndrome is often misdiagnosed as a heart attack because the symptoms are similar.

    In addition to chest pain and shortness of breath, patients with broken heart syndrome have electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) changes that look like a heart attack, Dr. Harmony Reynolds, the d irector of the Soter Center for Women’s Cardiovascular Research at NYU, told INSIDER. But when these patients have an angiogram (the standard test used to see what arteries are blocked in heart attacks), they don’t have any blockages or blood clots. “Yet they still have a large area of the heart muscle that doesn’t work properly,” Reynolds told INSIDER.

    Additionally, patients with broken heart syndrome have heart cells that are “stunned” by the adrenaline and stress hormones but not killed as they are in a heart attack, according to John Hopkins Medicine.

    Most patients are able to recover within weeks, although the condition can be life-threatening if patients have congestive heart failure, low blood pressure, shock, or heart rhythm abnormalities, according to John Hopkins Medicine. In either case, it’s important to see a doctor if you experience symptoms.

    “I think there are probably plenty of people who don’t even come to the hospital if they’re having it in the context of an emotional stress,” Reynolds told INSIDER. “It would be a mistake to say ‘Oh this isn’t broken heart syndrome, I’m just upset now’ and to stay home. It’s really important to get to the hospital.”

    Most people with broken heart syndrome do not have a history of heart disease . Although it can affect anyone, Reynolds said it’s most common in post-menopausal women. He adds that there isn’t enough research to explain why this seems to be the case, but doctors speculate that it might be due to hormones.

    Broken heart syndrome is a relatively newly discovered condition, and doctors are only beginning to understand how to diagnose and treat it.

    Broken heart syndrome went undiagnosed until Japanese researchers discovered the condition in 1990. They called it “takotsubo cardiomyopath” after the Japanese term “tako tsubo,” which refers to an octopus trap shaped like the bulging heart during the condition, according to NHLBI.

    The condition is currently diagnosed by the heart squeezing dysfunction pattern that can be seen on scans. “But there isn’t the kind of test where we could do a blood test and say ‘Oh yeah, that’s takotsubo,'” Reynolds told INSIDER.

    Doctors are still working on finding a way to treat it and they may recommend certain medications that block stress hormones. Reynolds also said that deep breathing and yoga relaxation techniques might be useful treatments because they have been shown to improve the functioning of the calming portion of the nervous system. Still, more evidence is needed to support both short and long-term treatments for the condition.

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    • Medical Reviewer: Dan Brennan, MD

    What is fibromyalgia?

    How to know if you have renfield's syndrome

    A fibromyalgia attack is a temporary worsening of fibromyalgia symptoms.

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic (long-term) condition that causes muscle and joint pain throughout your body along with other symptoms, like fatigue, difficulty sleeping, or problems with memory.

    Fibromyalgia is not a progressive disease, meaning that it will not get worse over time or cause damage to organs such as muscle or bone . However, during a fibromyalgia attack, symptoms become more severe and more frequent for a period of time.

    Fibromyalgia symptoms tend to come and go, so a few hours or a day when you feel worse is not considered a fibromyalgia attack. The term “flare” or “attack” is used to describe a long period of several days or weeks when your symptoms are significantly worse than usual.

    Symptoms of a fibromyalgia attack

    People experience fibromyalgia flares differently. One person may find that their back pain gets much more severe, while another person may have more intense headaches.

    Widespread pain

    The pain of fibromyalgia may be described as aching, burning, gnawing, stabbing, or throbbing.

    Some of the more common forms of fibromyalgia pain include:

    • Lower back pain, sometimes with shooting leg pains
    • Muscle cramps, especially in the legs
    • Migraines or severe tension headaches
    • Temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) (pain in the jaw joints and the muscles that control the jaw)
    • Other joint pain, especially in the neck, shoulders, and hips
    • Dysesthesia (an uncomfortable sensation of numbness, prickling, or tingling, often in the hands or feet)

    Hypersensitivity

    In addition to chronic pain, people with fibromyalgia often experience allodynia and hyperalgesia.

    Allodynia is a lowered pain threshold that causes you to experience pain from something that would not normally hurt, such as a light touch. Hyperalgesia is an unusually intense pain response to something that would normally hurt. The pain may also last much longer than expected.

    People with fibromyalgia are also often exceptionally sensitive to noise, lights, smells, temperature changes, and/or vibration. This can quickly lead to sensory overload, which can make other fibromyalgia symptoms even worse.

    Stiffness

    About 80% of people with fibromyalgia feel stiff for at least 15 minutes upon waking in the morning. For many, this continues for hours afterward, and they must allow for extra time in their morning routine because their movement is so limited. The same stiffness may return later in the day if they’ve been sitting still for a while and then get up.

    Fatigue

    People with fibromyalgia typically feel exhausted much of the time, even after sleeping or resting. Their stamina (strength for a lengthy physical or mental task) is often significantly reduced. After a physical effort such as work or exercise, the person often experiences a worsening of symptoms, including extreme fatigue, muscle exhaustion, and increased pain.

    Difficulty sleeping

    Researchers have found that over 90% of people with fibromyalgia have trouble sleeping.

    Sleep disorders common in people with fibromyalgia include:

    • Insomnia — problems falling asleep or staying asleep
    • Restless leg syndrome — an uncomfortable urge to move your legs
    • Periodic limb movement disorder — your legs or arms move repetitively during sleep
    • Sleep apnea — you experience pauses in your breathing during sleep

    Muscle weakness and tightness

    Muscle weakness means a loss of muscle strength. Fibromyalgia can cause generalized weakness, affecting all your muscles at once, or weakness in a particular muscle. Your muscles may be easily exhausted and respond by trembling or twitching.

    In fibromyalgia, your muscles may be tight or tense much of the time, leading to soreness and pain. Tight muscles may result in a decrease in your strength and range of motion.

    Problems with memory and concentration

    “Fibro fog” is a common description of the forgetfulness, confusion, and trouble focusing often experienced in fibromyalgia. Communication may become more difficult during a flare, as it may take even longer than usual for you to process information and respond.

    How to know if you have renfield's syndrome

    QUESTION

    Causes of a fibromyalgia attack

    Triggers that tend to bring on a fibromyalgia flare include:

    Stress

    Whether caused by issues at work, in your finances, or in your personal relationships, stress of all types can cause your fibromyalgia to flare. Stressful events such as the death of a loved one can have the same effect. Physical stressors such as injury or illness can also cause your fibromyalgia to flare.

    Schedule changes

    Moving, a new job (especially if you switch to a different shift), or even a new relationship can significantly change your day-to-day routine and trigger a flare. Even events that create temporary schedule changes, such as traveling or a school break, can lead to an increase in symptoms.

    Hormones

    The menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and menopause all cause drops and/or jumps in the levels of hormones in a woman’s body. These dramatic shifts in hormone levels can trigger fibromyalgia attacks.

    Changes in weather

    Some people find that their fibromyalgia symptoms increase with large swings in barometric pressure, humidity, or temperature, such as when a cold front moves through.

    Sleep deprivation

    Studies have shown that lack of quality sleep worsens pain and other symptoms in people with fibromyalgia.

    Diagnosing fibromyalgia

    To diagnose fibromyalgia, your doctor will ask you questions about how long you have had pain and which body parts have been hurting.

    You may receive a diagnosis of fibromyalgia if you have experienced widespread pain for more than three months and have other fibromyalgia symptoms, such as fatigue or problems with memory.

    Before beginning to explain how to know if you have pneumonia or bronchitis, briefing you about respiratory tract would be worthwhile. As we know, our airways can be divided into upper and lower respiratory tracts for the purpose of understanding.

    The Upper Respiratory Tract Includes:

    • Sinuses
    • Nose
    • Naso Pharynx
    • Larynx

    The Lower Respiratory Tract Includes:

    • Trachea
    • Bronchus
    • Right and left bronchi respectively – These are divisions of the main bronchus. Bronchi enter into the lungs. The bronchus and bronchi are supported by rings of cartilage.
    • Bronchioles – Smaller branches of bronchi within the lungs
    • Alveoli – Bronchioles terminate in small air filled sacs
    • Lungs – Right lung is divided into upper, middle and lower lobes. Whereas the left lung is divided into just two lobes as the upper and lower.

    Some More Details about Our Respiratory Tract:

    • The airways are lined extensively by smooth muscles, goblet cells which are responsible for mucus production and hair-like projections called Cilia. Goblet cells trap particulate matter or micro-organisms and ciliary movements help to push them out of the airways.
    • The respiratory tract is studded with lymph nodes for effective drainage of infective organisms and toxins. The thoracic duct passes from near the trachea.
    • Each part of the airway is rich in blood and nerve supply.
    • The alveoli are mainly responsible for the gaseous exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
    • Pneumocytes within the alveoli are responsible for gaseous exchange and production of surfactant-a fluid which prevents the alveoli from collapsing.
    • The lungs are covered externally by the parietal and visceral pleura. The pleural cavity contains pleural fluid which works as a shock absorber and a transporter of nutrients and fluids from and into the lungs.
    • The lungs are protected by the rib cage therefore direct trauma to the lungs is a very rare occurrence.

    To know if you have bronchitis or pneumonia, it is vital to know that both of these clinical entities are affections of the lower respiratory tract. Further details of this article will help you understand if you have pneumonia or bronchitis or if you have both at the same time and how to differentiate between the two.

    What is Pneumonia?

    Pneumonia is an acute infection of the lungs characterized by the presence of pus, blood or other fluids within the alveoli or the air sacs.

    Collection of any sort of fluid inside the alveoli makes it difficult for the patient to breath. A cough occurs as a protective mechanism attempting to push infective material out of the lungs. Based upon the type of fluid collection and infective organism, color of sputum may vary.

    What are the Causes of Pneumonia?

    The table below will help you understand different types of pneumonia and how they are caused. Each type of pneumonia has plenty of causative organisms or mechanisms.

    Streptococcus Pneumonia – responsible for maximum cases of pneumonia and often results in severe forms of pneumonia.

    H. Influenza Pneumonia – occurs commonly in patients having chronic underlying lung affections. Legionella – air conditioners are the most common source.

    What are Signs and Symptoms of Pneumonia?

    1. Constitutional symptoms like body ache, fever with chills and rigours, night sweats, disorientation and confusion in elderly patients.
    2. A cough with expectoration which is purulent or containing blood.
    3. Difficulty in breathing.
    4. Pain in the affected part of the lungs on breathing or coughing.
    5. Occasionally nausea, vomiting and loss of appetite may be present.

    What is Bronchitis?

    Bronchitis may be acute or chronic. Chronic bronchitis is considered as a component of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD). Multiple environmental, dietary and genetic factors work in causation and progression of this disease. Acute bronchitis is acute infection and inflammation of the bronchial tubes.

    What are the Causes of Bronchitis?

    1. Infection – Bacterial, viral and fungal infections of the nose, sinuses or lungs.
    2. As a complication of other illnesses like measles, chicken pox or whooping cough.
    3. Exposure to irritants like dust, toxins and chemicals.
    4. Inhalation of allergens like dust, pollen, animal dander, hay and certain food substances.

    What are The Signs and Symptoms of Bronchitis?

    1. Fever with chills, body ache, sweating and palpitations.
    2. A cough with expectoration which is scanty initially and later becomes purulent.
    3. Difficulty in breathing while coughing.

    How do you Know If you have Bronchitis or Pneumonia?

    The most important differentiating factors between the two are:

    Pneumonia Bronchitis
    Infection of alveoli Infection of bronchi
    Most important symptom is shortness of breath Most important symptom is a cough and wheezing
    Expectoration is purulent of blood-tinged Expectoration is white or mucopurulent
    Low oxygen saturation Low or normal oxygen saturation
    Rales (crackles) heard on auscultation Rhonchi and wheeze heard on auscultation
    Can occur due to bacteria, viruses, fungi, tuberculosis and aspiration or radiation. Maximum cases are viral. Bacterial, allergic and exposure to toxins and chemicals can cause bronchitis

    A chest x-ray is commonly done to differentiate between the two. Chest x-ray of a patient having pneumonia shows a white patchy area of consolidation of affected part of the lung. The above differentiating features between the two clinical conditions will help you understand if you have pneumonia or bronchitis.

    Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Can Bronchitis turn into Pneumonia?

    Yes. Bronchitis can turn into pneumonia

    • Causative organisms which infect the bronchi can potentially affect even the alveoli.
    • This is because alveoli are responsible for gaseous exchange and are surrounded extensively by blood vessels and capillaries.
    • The entire respiratory system is also surrounded by lymphatics.
    • Any infective organisms can travel to the alveoli via blood or lymph.

    Can I have Bronchitis and Pneumonia at the same Time?

    Yes. It is possible to have pneumonia and bronchitis at the same time. But to say so, it is considered that a particular micro-organism can infect one lung completely, right from the bronchus to the alveoli. Such cases are often complicated and serious ones.

    How to know if you have renfield's syndrome

    Written and verified by psychologist Valeria Sabater.

    Last update: 27 May, 2022

    We know that a degenerative knee is a chronic disease that causes pain and discomfort. In many cases, it can even cause incapacitation. That’s why a lot of doctors recommend surgery for a knee replacement.

    Although genetics plays an important role, you can control a lot of other factors to lessen the damage. This means that through some lifestyle changes you can fight for your knee health.

    What causes degeneration of the knee joint?

    In many cases, genetics or hereditary diseases are to blame. In spite of this, lifestyle factors can affect genetics, especially when you’re placing extra stress on the joint. This is common if you have extra weight or bad exercise habits. In rare occasions, the degeneration does not appear to have any origin.

    The most important factor in knee degeneration is arthritis. This chronic disease affects the degeneration of cartilage cells, increasing the degeneration of the joint.

    Furthermore, if you’ve had an injury, it could affect your joints in the future. The degeneration of the knee caused by injury is also called “secondary arthritis” usually due to fractures or knee strains. These are often found in athletes or those suffering from obesity.

    Nevertheless, despite its various origins, the symptoms of knee joint degeneration tend to be similar.

    Symptoms of a degenerative knee

    Once you already have degeneration, you may experience an alteration in the cartilage cells or even visible malformation.

    In turn, this causes undesirable alignment and resistance in the joint. Moreover, this affects the elasticity of the cartilage, causing thinning and deterioration.

    With this in mind, if you’re unsure about your knee health here are some warning signs to watch out for:

    • Pain after long periods of standing, feeling of pinched nerves.
    • Swelling or pain after walking over rocky or uneven flooring, such as after a long hike.
    • Sharp pain while climbing steps that may even have resulted in a fall.
    • Pain during standing after long periods of sitting.
    • Crunching or popping of joints.
    • Swelling. Don’t confuse this with water retention. Make a note if only one knee is swollen and/or if you have swelling elsewhere.
    • Knee malformation. This can only be noticed in advanced stages, and it often causes your knees to turn inward due to cartilage damage.
    • Bone spurs within the knee joint. Researchers have been looking at medications designed to prevent these, as it can cause severe pain and discomfort.

    What if I’ve already been diagnosed?

    First, after a diagnosis of a degenerative knee joint, you should start thinking about your lifestyle. Listen to your physician’s advice, and educate yourself on pain management. Likewise, it’s worth taking a look at the possible medication you might be taking. Those who suffer from a degenerative knee often live long and healthy lives, so don’t be afraid.

    On the other hand, you can also think about getting a knee replacement. Replaced joints usually have a limited shelf life, so take into consideration your age and health.

    Is it possible to prevent knee degeneration?

    First, prevention is key. If you have a family history for knee degeneration, it doesn’t have to rule your life.

    Second, be aware that cartilage can always regenerate. Living a healthy life can limit its loss while helping to rebuild it. Here are some things you can do:

    • Watch your weight; maintain a healthy weight to lessen the stress on your joints.
    • Boost your immune system. Make sure you get enough calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Fruits and vegetables should be a major part of your diet.
    • Eat a diet designed to helprenew your cartilage. Make sure to include legumes, yeast, gelatin and eggs, as well as vitamin C.
    • Don’t quit exercise; try swimming! It’s easy on the joints and good for your overall muscle and bone health.

    Overall, by adjusting your lifestyle and making a few simple changes, you’ll notice your pain getting better. Remember that prevention and management are key to this condition.

    • Fransen, M., Mcconnell, S., Harmer, A. R., Van der Esch, M., Simic, M., & Bennell, K. L. (2015). Exercise for osteoarthritis of the knee. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004376.pub3
    • Coggon, D., Reading, I., Croft, P., McLaren, M., Barrett, D., & Cooper, C. (2001). Knee osteoarthritis and obesity. International Journal of Obesity. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0801585
    • Felson, D. T., Naimark, A., Anderson, J., Kazis, L., Castelli, W., & Meenan, R. F. (1987). The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis in the elderly. the framingham osteoarthritis study. Arthritis & Rheumatism. https://doi.org/10.1002/art.1780300811
    • Heidari, B. (2011). Knee osteoarthritis prevalence, risk factors, pathogenesis and features: Part I. Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine.

    Written and verified by psychologist Valeria Sabater.

    How to know if you have renfield's syndrome

    There are several forum posts and opinions voiced by people who have claimed to be real vampires. I hate to be the one to tell you this, but you are not a real vampire. Or, at least, you are not a vampire in the sense of mythology (which includes Twilight).

    Biologically, you are a human. You cannot ever change that, sorry. This is because there is no other humanoid species in existence today other than Homo sapiens. The closest a human being can come to a “vampire” is forcing themselves to drink blood, which is a very bad idea (I’ll get to why later).

    Some species do feed off blood, because that’s how they evolved to survive. Species like the vampire bat, the female mosquito, the leech, the bedbug, and the lamprey eel. So, just as a review: bats, bugs and fish drink blood as a primary food source. Humans do not. Hematophagy has been known to be practice in humans, but only culturally, sparingly, and/or in rituals of ancient cultures. Humans do not use blood as a primary food source.

    So if you aren’t mythically a vampire, why claim that you are? There are two possible reasons for such claims.

    The first reason is a psychological one, and if this is the case, then the person should seek professional medical assistance.

    The second reason is age-related.

    Let’s start with the first reason. If you call yourself a vampire because you “crave” blood (your own or especially other people’s), then odds are you have a disorder. If you truly believe yourself to be a vampire, and seriously need to drink blood, you are suffering from a psychological disorder similar to Windigo Psychosis (which can lead to cannibalism). This is why you should see a doctor.

    “But I WANT to be a vampire,” you might protest. Let me tell you why allowing yourself to drink blood is a bad idea. If you swallow too much blood, your stomach will reject it and vomit. “But I’ve swallowed blood before, and nothing happened!” you might say. That’s because odds are, you got a paper cut and sucked your finger. Small amounts of blood, your stomach can manage. And even if it tasted “good,” consider this– ketchup tastes good in small quantities, but you’d never drink a whole bottle of it. I once drank barbecue sauce on a dare and it almost made me sick. The consumption of blood, especially if it is not your own, can spread viruses and cause disorders in your body (besides the vomiting). So please, for your own sake, do not attempt to drink blood. If you feel you have an intense craving for it, see a trained professional who can help you with your problem.

    If your vampiric “symptoms” go beyond just blood cravings (IE, you think sunlight “burns” you, you think garlic harms you, and you think crosses and churches are your enemy), then odds are these are just further manifestations of your psychological problem. There is a strong correlation between belief and behavior. It’s for this reason that placebos tend to be highly effective in double-blind studies. So, if you can’t afford a psychiatrist, simply stop believing it and it will go away.

    Now, on to the second reason. Despite what you may have assumed, the age-relation doesn’t have much to do with Twilight. It actually has to do with stages of development. Although, Twilight is a factor.

    Impartial observers may have noticed a correlation between the number of Twilight fans and the number of preteens and teenagers claiming to be vampires. This is no coincidence. Five to ten years ago, the same age group claimed to be witches and wizards.

    This isn’t necessarily because the teens actually BELIEVE themselves to be vampires, but rather it’s a form of pretend play that individuals their age continue to indulge in. It’s a left-over remnant of their childhood, and a method through which they learned several truths about their lives and the world way back when. Preteens, and even some teenagers, are young enough to still indulge in this form of imaginative play. In their new world (Middle School and/or High School), they want to understand and belong in the society around them. Imaginative play is how they did this in the past, and it’s how they adjust to changes in their body, environment and social life. It’s a way of transitioning into adulthood with as little conflicts as possible.

    In short– they will, eventually, grow out of it.

    So, if you believe yourself to be a vampire, then odds are you fall into one of the two categories above. In ten years, when someone writes a best-selling book series about ghosts, all preteens will want to be ghosts. That’s just how it works.

    If you believe that you are a vampire and do NOT fall into one of these two categories (IE, you do not have a psychological disorder and you are seventeen or older), by all means argue with me.

    I can almost guarantee you that you will lose.

    Even though we live in a world that is expanding rapidly and at the most technologically advanced era, many niches are still far from being perfect. The medical industry, in particular, is constantly expanding, yet many aspects of the human body still remains a mystery even to the most qualified doctors, physicians and medical scientists.

    How to know if you have renfield's syndrome

    While cancer has been treated successfully in many cases, scientists are still unable to determine the specific causes for most types of cancers. This is only one particular example of a disease that can be treated with a relatively fair success rate, but still, the details about the disease are still not completely understood by experts in the industry.

    Today, we want to talk about a particular condition that is extremely rare – in fact, while a significant number of search results pop up when searching for this condition, the majority of these results mostly refer to one particular recorded case of the condition. The condition we are referring to is called gut fermentation syndrome. It is also sometimes called Auto-Brewery Syndrome.

    What is Gut Fermentation Syndrome?

    We should start out by looking at what exactly gut fermentation syndrome is. As we have already discussed, the syndrome is sometimes also called Auto-Brewery Syndrome. In some cases, it may also be referred to as syndrome A.

    A case study published on Scientific Research [1] reports that gut fermentation syndrome is extremely rare and often considered unknown in the medical industry. There are only a few reports published and even fewer actual cases of this syndrome recorded in medical history.

    According to Latinos Health [2] , gut fermentation is mostly found amongst people in Japan, but there have been a small number of cases diagnosed in the United States as well.

    How to know if you have renfield's syndrome

    Gut fermentation syndrome is a rare disorder with few reported cases. istockphoto.com

    How Does Gut Fermentation Syndrome Work?

    Let’s discuss how exactly gut fermentation syndrome works. To understand how it works, we should quickly consider how digestion works. It is quite obvious that digestion starts at the mouth. We consume food through the mouth and the digestive process starts immediately when we initiate a chewing action. Chewing allows food to be broken down into smaller, better-digestible pieces.

    The food is then transported downwards to the stomach, where it is mixed with stomach acids, also known as stomach bile, and broken down even further. The smaller food particles are then transported further through the digestive tract towards the small intestine, then the large intestine and, finally, any waste is disposed of in the form of feces through the anus.

    While food is travelling through the digestive tract, nutrients (vitamins, minerals, fats, protein, for example) are extracted from the food particles and then added to the bloodstream. The bloodstream then carries the nutrients to the heart, the brain and all other parts of the body that need nutrients for optimum functionality.

    When a person develops gut fermentation syndrome, their body stores a larger amount of yeast from starchy foods [3] . Starchy foods include potatoes, pasta, rice, cereals and bread. Yeast from these starchy foods is a common form of carbohydrates. When this large concentration of yeast is stored in the body, it is turned into ethanol, or, as it is more popularly known as, alcohol.

    Apart from starchy foods, the condition may also grow to a more severe stage. In an advance phase of gut fermentation syndrome, the yeast that accumulates in the body of the affected person reacts to sugar particularly well, which means every time sugar is consumed in any form, alcohol is “brewed” in the body.

    What are the Symptoms of Gut Fermentation Syndrome?

    How to know if you have renfield's syndrome

    Gut Fermentation Syndrome is a condition that makes you drunk without drinking alcohol. istockphoto.com

    Gut fermentation syndrome is a condition that causes yeast in the body to produce alcohol, scientifically referred to as ethanol. Thus, the most obvious symptoms that a person would experience when they have developed this health condition would be intoxication.

    The syndrome causes the affected person to feel like they are “drunk” most of the time – in some cases, the affected person may even feel like they are “drunk” all of the time. The condition also raises the blood alcohol level of the affected person.

    In turn, this also means that they will not be allowed to drive a car due to the fact that a DUI can be issued to a particular person should their blood alcohol levels be higher than a certain level. The intoxication symptom of gut fermentation syndrome is not only noticed by the affected person themselves, but due to the fact that the person feels “drunk” most of the time, it also causes other people that surrounds the affected individual to notice the symptoms.

    One particular case of gut fermentation syndrome that was recorded explains that intoxication does not seem to be the only symptom that this condition causes. This particular case study is mentioned by numerous reports and often referenced by individuals that write about this particular condition online.

    According to the case study, the affected person also experienced bloating, accompanied by gas. Chronic fatigue was another particular symptom that the patient experienced, combined with mental impairment. Furthermore, the patient also complained about experiencing chronic headaches, which affected him throughout the course of the particular condition.

    Treatment for Gut Fermentation Syndrome

    How to know if you have renfield's syndrome

    Antifungal drugs help to reduce symptoms of Gut fermentation syndrome. shutterstock.com

    Since this particular condition is caused by a yeast buildup in the body, doctors have noticed that prescribing a dose of medication with anti-fungal properties seemed to be effective in reducing the symptoms and assisting with treating the condition effectively. In addition to medication to reduce the fungi content in the patient’s body, certain adjustments are also needed in their diet in order to reduce their intake of carbohydrates and sugar.

    Conclusion

    The medical industry still has a long way to go and medical experts are spending billions of dollars on research to identify more advance ways to diagnose and treat diseases. Gut fermentation syndrome is one particular condition that is still misunderstood in many ways by medical scientists.

    The condition has distinctive symptoms that might make it seem like the patient has drunk alcohol, even when no alcoholic beverages had been consumed. Fortunately, advancements in medical technology have allowed scientists to discover the potential causes and develop effective treatment measures to assist with eliminating the cause.

    How is Cushing’s Syndrome Diagnosed?

    Because not all people with Cushing’s syndrome have all signs and symptoms, and because many of the features of Cushing’s syndrome, such as weight gain and high blood pressure, are common in the general population, it can be difficult to make the diagnosis of Cushing’s syndrome based on the symptoms alone. As a result, doctors use laboratory tests to help diagnose Cushing’s syndrome and, if that diagnosis is made, go on to determine whether it is caused by Cushing’s disease or not. These tests determine if too much cortisol is made spontaneously, or if the normal control of hormones isn’t working properly.

    Cortisol measurements
    The most commonly used tests measure the amount of cortisol in the saliva or urine. It is also possible to check whether there is too much production of cortisol by giving a small tablet called dexamethasone that mimics cortisol. This is called a dexamethasone suppression test. If the body is regulating cortisol correctly, the cortisol levels will decrease, but this will not happen in someone with Cushing’s syndrome.

    These tests are not always able to definitively diagnose Cushing’s syndrome because other illnesses or problems can cause excess cortisol or abnormal control of cortisol production. These conditions that mimic Cushing’s syndrome are called ‘pseudo-Cushing’s states’ and include the conditions shown in Table 2. Because of the similarity in symptoms and laboratory test results between Cushing’s syndrome and pseudo-Cushing’s states, doctors may have to do a number of tests and may have to treat conditions that might cause pseudo-Cushing’s states – such as depression – to see if the high cortisol levels become normal during treatment. If they do not, and especially if the physical features get worse, it is more likely that the person has true Cushing’s syndrome.

    How to know if you have renfield's syndrome

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    Normally, your body does an amazing job of sorting through and pulling out all the nutrients it needs from the substances you eat or drink in a day. Sometimes, though, your system malfunctions, and the vitamins and minerals you need are flushed from your system as waste. Doctors call that malabsorption syndrome. Only your physician can determine if it’s happening, but there are a few symptoms that may alert you to a possible problem with malabsorption syndrome.

    The Basics of Malabsorption Syndrome

    Your small intestine is responsible for absorbing nutrients from the food you eat and sending them into your bloodstream, so they can be further processed and distributed to the structures throughout your body, including your bones, skin, hair and other organs. Malabsorption syndrome refers to several disorders that affect your small intestine’s ability to absorb enough of certain nutrients and fluids. This may include macronutrients, such as protein, carbs and fat, as well as micronutrients, such as vitamins and minerals – or both.

    How Malabsorption Affects Your Health

    You need a daily combination of vitamins and minerals to maintain strong bones, healthy skin, heart and nerve function, and a wide variety of other vital bodily functions. Depending on the type of nutrient not being absorbed, you may have problems with your digestive system, low iron levels in your blood (anemia), numbness in your hands and feet, memory issues and more.

    Symptoms may also include:

    • Soft, bulky stools that are light-colored and foul-smelling.
    • Dry hair or hair loss.
    • Fluid retention (edema).
    • Bloating and gas or explosive diarrhea.
    • Low blood pressure, unexplained weight loss or muscle wasting.

    Causes of Malabsorption Syndrome

    It’s important to differentiate between nutrient deficiencies due to a poor diet and deficiencies caused by malabsorption, which has an underlying cause that may need treatment in addition to replacing the missing nutrients. Only a doctor can determine whether your symptoms are caused by malabsorption syndrome.

    It could be, for instance, that your stomach can’t produce the enzymes it needs to digest certain foods or is having difficulty mixing the foods you eat with the enzymes and acid your stomach produces naturally. This information helps your doctor prescribe the correct diet and supplement regimen to keep you healthy

    Causes of malabsorption include:

    • Damage to your intestine by infection, inflammation, trauma or surgery.
    • Long-term or frequent use of antibiotics.
    • Celiac disease, Crohn’s disease, chronic pancreatitis.
    • Lactose intolerance.
    • Gallbladder, liver or pancreatic disease.
    • Parasitic infection.
    • Medications or treatment that may injure the lining of your intestine, such as tetracycline or radiation therapy for certain cancers.

    Testing for Malabsorption Syndrome

    If your doctor suspects malabsorption syndrome, she’ll likely recommend starting with a few simple diagnostic tests, including:

    • Blood tests to check your vitamin and mineral levels, such as B-12, calcium and iron.
    • Tests to determine if fat is present in your stool, which is normally the case in malabsorption syndrome.
    • Breath test to check for lactose intolerance.

    For further information, your doctor may also recommend a CT scan or other imaging tests to check for structural abnormalities in your digestive system, such as thickening in the walls of your small intestine that may indicate Crohn’s disease.

    Treating Malabsorption Syndrome

    Treating malabsorption syndrome includes managing your symptoms, such as diarrhea, and replacing the nutrients your body needs to function. Depending on the cause of the malabsorption and your symptoms, treatment may include:

    • Referral to a dietitian to design a nutrition plan that helps ensure you get the nutrients you’re missing.
    • Medication to control diarrhea, which is a very common symptom of malabsorption syndrome.
    • Enzyme supplements that help your body absorb nutrients.
    • Changes in your diet.
    • Vitamin supplements.

    Treatment for malabsorption is very important. Deficiencies in necessary nutrients can have a negative impact on every system in your body, including your heart, skin, brain, muscles, blood and kidneys.

    But it’s also vital to know which vitamins and minerals you lack, and the appropriate dietary changes and supplement amounts you need for effective treatment. Because high doses of vitamins and minerals can negatively affect your health, check with your doctor before beginning a regimen that recommends high doses of vitamins and minerals or a highly restrictive diet.

    when we think of Vampires we think of blood suckers,who suck the life force from you, the undead, A being with hypnotic powers with the ability to romance a person into wilfully being their victim.
    A being with extreme strength, a manipulator, a night stalker, creature of the night, unable to be out in daytime and sleeps in a coffin, or other uninviting and dark places.
    They usually have sharp piercing teeth and black, red, yellow, abnormal or normal eyes. Ability to read minds and the ability to move faster than the eye, A demon with a slow ageing process, with the ability to rejuvenate.
    They can come across as a normal human being but without the ability to cast a reflection. but there is always an element of creepiness about them.
    They can’t enter a home without being invited first According to legend and what we see in some movies, there are only a few ways to kill a vampire, stake through the heart, holy water, garlic , silver, beheading, fire, crosses and sunshine.
    There are vampires born into it, vampires turned into it and also half vampire who can walk in the day, also known as day walkers.
    Early films showed vampires who lived in old castles like nosferatu a creepy long toothed bald man, who liked to creep up on you and appear by the side of your bed, and count dracula, who was based on Vlad the impaler, Vlad III Prince of Wallachia.

    Vlad was a member of the house of Draculesti or Dracula, ruling mainly from 1456 to 1462 in Romania which at the time was the Kingdom of Hungary. His father, Vlad II Dracul, was a member of the Order of the Dragon, which was founded to protect Christianity in Eastern Europe. Vlad III is revered as a folk hero in Romania as well as other parts of Europe for his protection of the Romanian population both south and north of the Danube. As the cognomen ‘The Impaler’ suggests, his practice of impaling his enemies is part of his historical reputation During his lifetime, his reputation for excessive cruelty spread abroad, to Germany and elsewhere in Europe. The name of the vampire Count Dracula in Bram Stoker’s 1897 novel Dracula was inspired by Vlad’s patronymic Vlad was born in Transylvania, which was in the Kingdom of Hungary (which today is a part of Romania)

    We have so many nightmares about actually coming across a vampire in a dark alley or somewhere similar but equaly as dark and creepy, when I was young I would wrap myself tightly in the quilt for fear of a vampire and even in summer I would sweat while made sure a vampire couldn’t get me. I know now this was just silliness because if a vampire was to come I’d be putty in their hands. But of course all imagination and none of it true.

    So what is clinical Vampirism

    Clinical vampirism, is more commonly called Renfield’s syndrome, and is an obsession with drinking blood. Psychologist Richard Noll who examined cases of clinical vampirism, invented the syndrome. Noll noticed that some of these patients behaved like a demented character named Renfield from Bram Stoker’s Dracula. Renfield being a delusional mental patient in a lunatic asylum who ate spiders and flies to absorb their life force.
    Noll saw this as the human counterpart to the vampire, so late one night in 1990 while he was writing his book’s introduction, he jokingly suggested that clinical vampirism be renamed Renfield’s syndrome. People with symptoms of this syndrome are mostly male. For them, blood has a mystical quality, as if it can enhance their lives.
    In a pseudo-serious vein, Noll followed diagnostic protocol and identified a specific set of stages.
    “The first stage is some sort of event that happens before puberty where the child is excited in a sexual way by some event that involves blood injury or the ingestion of blood. At puberty it becomes fused with sexual fantasies, and the typical person with Renfield’s syndrome begins with autovampirism. That is, they begin to drink their own blood and then move on to other living creatures.
    It has…compulsive components.” Psychiatrists have long been aware of certain cases in which someone has a delusional notion that he or she is a vampire and therefore needs blood. This arises not from fiction and film but from an erotic attraction to blood and the idea that it conveys certain powers. It develops through fantasies involving sexual excitement.

    During the mid-1880s, German neurologist Richard von Krafft-Ebing noted the sexual presentation of the attacks, in that they were compulsive and often aimed at a victim in a way that suggested lust. For example, a 24-year-old vinedresser who murdered a twelve-year-old girl in the woods, he admitted that he also drank her blood, mutilated her genitals, tore out and ate part of her heart, and buried her remains. There was also the man who cut his arm for his wife to suck on before sex because it aroused her so strongly.

    Clinical vampirism is named after the mythical vampire, and is a recognizable, although rare, clinical entity characterized by periodic compulsive blood-drinking, affinity with the dead and uncertain identity. It is hypothetically the expression of an inherited archaic myth, the act of taking blood being a ritual that gives temporary relief.
    From ancient times vampirists have given substance to belief in the existence of supernatural vampires. Four vampirists, including Haigh, the ‘acid-bath murderer’, are described. From childhood they cut themselves, drank their own, exogenous human or animal blood to relieve a craving, dreamed of blood-shed, associated with the dead, and had a changing identity.
    They were intelligent, with no family mental or social pathology.

    Some self-cutters are auto-vampirists; females are not likely to assault others for blood, but males are potentially dangerous.
    Vampirism may be a cause of unpredictable repeated assault and murder, and should be looked for in violent criminals who are self-mutilators.
    Because of the disease not generally being recognized and no current treatment is known, there are debates about the dangers of not being able to treat this disorder, as patients are potentially dangerous to society.

    James Riva was 23 years old when he shot and killed his elderly disabled grandmother as she sat in her wheel chair, he then stabbed her several times in the heart. He drank the blood that gushed from her wounds and then set fire to house to remove the evidence.He claimed he had been possessed by a 700 year old vampire, and that was the reason why he needed to drink her blood. He also claimed his grandmother was a vampire who fed the vampire which possessed him while he slept. He was sentenced to life imprisonment with a further 10 to 20 years for arson.

    Mauricio Lopez’s niece Mariella Mendez was having an affair with her sisters husband, Macario Cruz. When Mauricio found out about the affair he decided to kill Cruz and drink his blood. He stabbed Macario in the heart and the liver in front of his niece and her 4 children, he then took a plastic cup and filled it with Cruz’s blood, then drinking it before fleeing the scene. He’s now facing charges from second degree murder to aggravated assault and aggravated battery with a deadly weapon.