How to write a work plan

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If you are preparing to launch a new product or coordinate a long-term project, a work plan can help you organize the details into one document. Creating a written work plan encourages you to think through what you want to achieve and break the project into smaller tasks.

In this article, we cover the three most common types of work plans and the simple steps you can take to create an effective work plan for your upcoming project.

What is a work plan?

A work plan is a written document designed to streamline a project. The purpose is to create a visual reference for the goal, objectives, tasks and team members who are responsible for each area. Every member of your team should be updated based on progress and current status.

If you have a complex project, you can create your own custom work plan. When you are clear about your strategy and what you need to be successful, a work plan template can save time, as you will plug in tasks, team members, objectives and timelines.

A work plan includes:

Setting goals and objectives

Establishing team responsibilities

Setting project timelines

Establishing a budget

Thoughtfully working through these details before beginning a large project can identify team member responsibilities, reduce the chances you will go over your budget, and increase the likelihood of achieving your goal within the allotted time period.

Types of work plans

There are several work plans you can create depending on who will be using the document. The purpose and type of project can impact the specific details that should be included. The most common types of work plans are:

Employee work plan

Individuals and small groups commonly use this type of document as a tool to develop and execute an effective plan with guidelines and action steps to complete a project. This plan could include:

The goal of the project

A projected budget

Materials and expenses required for the project

An estimated timeline for completion

For example, a marketing team may create a work plan for a new advertising campaign. Their goals may include increasing sales by 25% and web traffic by 15%. They may also list the roles of each team member, such as writing the ad copy, contacting distribution partners and assigning due dates for each.

Manager work plan

Similar to the employee work plan, this document has a larger project scope and may include:

Benefits the project would have to the business

Detailed lists of costs and the budget associated with the project

Statistics that show how the business will increase because of the project

For example, the manager in a marketing department may create a quarterly strategic plan. The goals could include increasing online sales by 20%, listing objectives like launching an online advertising campaign and hiring an SEO strategist to increase online visibility. It may include a detailed budget, statistics and information on monthly growth.

Business owner work plan

Similar to a lean business plan that an entrepreneur might use, the business owner work plan might focus on annual goals or a new product proposal. These types of work plans would also include market research and long-term projections.

For example, an e-commerce company owner could create a work plan that includes annual goals like increasing net profits by 25%, with specific objectives for how to accomplish that. However, it could also include market research about current market trends and a plan to explore new opportunities for generating revenue.

How to create a work plan

1. Set goals and objectives

The first step to creating a work plan is to set clear goals and objectives. Your goals should focus on the big picture, and the objectives should be specific and tangible. For example, if you are launching a new product, the goal may be to drive 50,000 people to the website in the next 12 months. An objective for that goal could be to launch a new social media campaign.

2. Establish team responsibilities

Once you have identified the objectives, assign team members to drive those initiatives. If you designate a team to accomplish individual objectives, assign a leader to keep the team on track. If the project is large and complex with many teams, assign hierarchy levels. Here, a project manager could oversee multiple team leaders, meeting with only those individuals and focusing on the overall progress to keep a project running according to schedule.

3. Set project timelines

Timelines are essential for keeping team members on task and expenses down. If you have a set amount of time to achieve your goal, you could change strategy more quickly if you see an opportunity to use a more effective approach.

Consider using the guidelines for SMART goals to create your work plan. SMART stands for:

Specific: Your goals, objectives and action steps should be clear and specific.

Measurable: It should be easily apparent when your goal has been accomplished.

Attainable: Your goals and objectives should be something your team can realistically accomplish within the designated time frame.

Relevant: The goal, objectives and tasks should be aligned with your values and long-term goals.

Time-based: Your plan should have a realistic end date that allows you to prioritize your time.

4. Establish a budget

Budgeting must happen at the end of this process, as part of the plan may include getting quotes from third-party vendors. The budget should break down the costs and assign different tasks to the individual teams. Each time a team reaches a new milestone or accomplishes an objective, you will be able to review your expenses and determine if the team is on budget. If a team or a task isn’t within the budget, you might reallocate resources from other areas or determine if financial resources can increase. A detailed work plan will allow you to easily see where more funds are needed and where problems in spending may lie.

Work plan template

Below is a work plan template you can use and adjust accordingly to organize your next project. Click here to download this simple project plan template.

How to write a work plan

Work plan example

The following is an example of a work plan for a company’s marketing strategy to boost online sales:

How to write a work plan

A goal without a plan is just a wish. Whichever endeavor you take on, it is important to plan to achieve your goals. Careful work planning may help avoid stress and ensure all employees are well aware of tasks and can confidently execute them.

There are many factors to consider when it comes to composing a proper work plan ― goals, strategy, objectives, tactics, responsibilities, etc. To assist you, we prepared an ultimate guide on how to write a work plan with valuable tips, tools, and templates!

What is a Work Plan?

First, let’s cover the basics to understand what the term “a work plan” actually means. While this concept can be applied to personal work, project managers usually use it to coordinate the work of team members.

When you have a project that requires different people’s input working on multiple assignments, a work plan is an indispensable tool that ensures all employees share the same vision and accomplish their targets.

So, the definition of work planning might look like following:

A work plan is a roadmap for the project, which allows the team to achieve its mission by breaking the goal into smaller steps and processes.

Tips for Efficient Work Planning

Before you get down to composing your work plan, here are a few tips we advise you to follow:

1. Set SMART Goals. Do you feel like you’re putting much effort but see no results? Perhaps, you have the wrong goals in place! Setting realistic goals that can be achieved within the indicated deadlines is essential to efficient work planning.

SMART is an acronym that can help you set efficient goals. To ensure your goals are clear and reachable, they should be Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Time-bound. Next time you set targets for your team, try this framework to improve your results.

How to write a work plan

2. Use Effective Project Methodologies. Keeping the project on track is difficult. When you deal with a complex project involving multiple tasks and stakeholders, having a handy methodology is paramount to achieving successful results.

The Kanban approach is one of the most effective and flexible methodologies applied by companies of all sizes. It helps keep your project on track, check the status and ensure you enjoy organizational transparency. Our Tracklify task manager was created according to the best Kanban principles by experienced project managers who have been working in the Software Delivering industry for years.

3. Prioritize Tasks. Prioritization improves work planning, particularly when there are many tasks to complete in tight deadlines. There are many ways to do it, so just choose the one that best fits you and your team’s needs!

4. Measure Time. Many companies neglect this tip and miss the opportunity to improve their workflow. Time tracking is a useful work planning tool that lets you see how much time you spend on each task, spot time killers, and improve your workflow to gain maximum efficiency.

5. Hold Status Meetings. To have your team synchronized, hold status meetings to discuss tasks, challenges, blockers, and achievements your team faces while working.

6. Ask for Feedback. Regularly ask your team whether they are satisfied with the work planning process and if they have any ideas for improvement. This step will provide you with a helicopter view of the process and ensure you see eye to eye with your employees.

How to Create a Work Plan: A Step by Step Guide

Step 1. Set SMART Goals. When your project is about to start, one of the most vital activities in work planning is to set clear and reachable goals. This step will provide your team with a clear picture of what, when and how they need to accomplish to demonstrate exceptional performance.

Step 2. Break Goals Into Tasks. Once you have your goals set, it’s time to break them into tasks and identify stakeholders involved. Thus, you can estimate the workload and identify the resources required to accomplish the goals you’ve set.

Step 3. Set Priorities. The next step is setting priorities. This step is necessary to allow your team members to focus on high-priority tasks at first before moving to the next ones. In such a way, you can ensure employees are consistent in their actions.

Step 4. Develop a Timeline. How much time do you need to accomplish all the goals? How much time will each task take? Estimate the project and develop a comprehensive timeline, which can be shared with other stakeholders. It’s a good idea to track time to ensure you reach your targets by the deadlines.

Step 5. Add Tasks for the Task Manager. There are countless work planning tools out there that have several instruments to help you achieve optimal performance. Time tracking, helpful notifications, status control, and other features may sufficiently improve your workflow management.

Step 7. Add Team Members. When you have your working plan done, invite your team members to the board and tell more about their role in the project. If you don’t use any task managers, you can share a work plan sample with them and expand on the tasks they need to accomplish.

Step 8. Launch a Project. Composing a detailed working plan is just the tip of the iceberg. To make your project successful, you have to keep track of the progress, make regular reports, introduce improvements and keep your team motivated throughout the process.

To do that, we recommend you conduct meetings at least once a week, engage your team in the problem-solving process and keep track of the project workflow so that nothing would be left unnoticed.

Examples of Productive Work Plans

To provide you with an idea of how the work can be organized, we compiled a list of successful work plan templates:

A guide for setting demonstrable objectives and a measurable deliverables plan

A work plan represents the formal road map for a project. It should clearly articulate the required steps to achieve a stated goal by setting demonstrable objectives and measurable deliverables that can be transformed into concrete actions. An effective plan serves as a guiding document, enabling the realization of an outcome through efficient team collaboration.

Before developing the methodology to create an effective plan, it can be useful to define some relevant nomenclature. Goals, strategy, objectives and tactics are terms that are often used interchangeably. However, each has a specific meaning.

A goal defines what you are trying to achieve and represents the mission concept. For example, a hypothetical example might be to achieve world domination, or perhaps something less ambitious, like make your company more profitable.

Strategy defines the broad strokes that will help achieve that goal. For example, one strategy to make a company more profitable might be to improve the efficiency of marketing dollars. Another might be to reduce costs or enhance the product offering to increase total addressable market.

Develop your work plan in an intuitive way!

Objectives are the measurable deliverables defined against strategies. For example, an objective for improving the efficiency of marketing dollars might be defined as achieving a 20% reduction in cost per acquisition. Setting clear measurable and realistic objectives can help prioritize and track the progress of the operational plan.

Tactics represent the specific checklist of techniques employed to achieve the demonstrable objectives. For example, improving the efficiency of marketing dollars by 20% might be achieved through the tactic of adding low acquisition cost channels to the mix, such as SEO or social media marketing. Another tactic might be to test new messaging or creative, find new keywords to advertise on, or improve the performance of direct response landing pages.

The final goal is to create a step-by-step worksheet. Prior to creating a detailed plan, the preliminary stages might involve a meeting of key stakeholders and project sponsors. The first step is to establish a goal and determine some strategic ideas. This will facilitate the development of a broad general outline, identify some of the larger strategic considerations, and help define scope constraints. Brainstorming can often identify individual strategies and tactics to support the key objectives.

It’s important to establish clear strategic goals with measurable deliverables

Planning activities can be accomplished by working backward from the final goal with core initiatives arranged hierarchically. Developing the plan can be achieved through iterative refinements of strategy, objectives and the underlying tactics. Gating factors should be accounted for in the development of a straw man outline. The main objectives and summary checklist should be included as the first step of the process.

Once the project outline is complete, it’s important to define clear realistic deliverables as part of the action plan. Milestones allow progress to be tracked against deliverables within a results-oriented framework. A timeline can be instrumental in identifying what needs to happen and when.

Objectives should be realistic and relevant to the stated goals. A good plan will often fan out from goal to tactic. For example, a single goal might be supported by a small number of strategies, each with a single or a small number of objectives. Objectives will often contain many tactics which should comprise the concrete actions to be accomplished within an achievable time frame. The more granular the tactical plan, the easier it will be to follow. Tasks can often be broken down into sub-tasks which represent individual units of work resulting in identifiable deliverables. As the project commences, it’s important to track against the agreed-upon deliverables.

How to write a work plan

A work plan is a set of goals and processes by which a team can accomplish those goals. It can be used in professional or private life and help you stay organized while working on projects.

Typically, work plans are used to organize large projects. Any structured work plan gives teams the project framework and the background, helps to visualize goals and timelines defined for the overall project.

A work plan breaks down all the tasks, and assigns different items to specific project members, providing them with individual timelines. It helps project managers to oversee the big picture while managing smaller project parts.

Sometimes project details can slow you down and complicate the entire processes. Optimizing the planning phase of a project can be a real lifesaver.

A work plan can be represented as the formal roadmap for a project or a structure, visualized with the help of Gantt Charts.

Anyway, it should clearly articulate all the required steps to achieve a key goal by setting demonstrable objectives and measurable deliverables.

An effective plan is a guiding document aimed to realize an outcome through efficient team collaboration.

How to write a work plan

1. Identify the goal for your work plan

The first thing you should do is to determine the goal up front to be prepared properly. Planning work, you’ll show your supervisor what projects you will be working on over the next defined period. These goals may come right after an annual performance review. You may also define your work plan after strategic planning sessions your company holds at the beginning of a new calendar year.

2. Write a background or intro

A background or introduction are usually written for professional business work plans. They help to put your work plan into context.

The intro should be short and engaging and remind your superiors why you are creating this work plan. In the background, you should highlight the reasons for creating the work plan.

3. Define the objectives

Goals and objectives point to things you want to accomplish through your work plan. Temporary or medium goals are general, while objectives are more specific.

  • Goals are usually focused on the big picture of your project.
  • Objectives should be tangible and specific. You should be able to check them off your list when you accomplish them.

SMART-concept for setting the right goals and objectives may be really helpful.

Do you remember the meanings of SMART acronym parts?

  • S-Specific. What exactly are we going to do for whom?
  • M-Measurable. Is your objective quantifiable and can you measure it? Can you count the results?
  • A-Achievable. Can you get it done in the time allotted with the resources you have?
  • R-Relevant. Will this objective have an effect on the desired goal or strategy?
  • T-Time bound. When will the objective be accomplished? When will you know you are done?

4. Create a list of your resources

This list should include anything that will be necessary for you to achieve your goals and objectives. It’s about books, docs, buildings, rooms, financial budget, consultants, and so on.

5. Think about constraints

Here you may identify any obstacles that may get in the way of achieving your goals and objectives.

6. Define who is accountable

Accountability is an essential part of a good plan. At this stage, you’d better identify who is responsible for completing each task. It can be a single team member or the entire team.

7. Time to move to your strategy

Now look over your work plan and decide how you’ll reach your goals and objectives by overcoming all constraints. Think about an appropriate project management software or a personal calendar to keep this information organized.

Schedule every step. Keep in mind that unexpected things happen and you need to build space into your schedule to prevent falling behind.

How to write a work plan

It’s important to permanently monitor project performance and periodically review against the objectives stated in the work plan.

Tasks progress can be tracked with Excel or Google sheets. However, it can be more effectively accomplished within the PM software that often includes team collaboration features and different templates.

Hygger provides the ease of use tools with strong team collaboration features that are suitable for any project.

For examples, you may visualize your plans with the help of easy to use roadmap:

How to write a work plan


Aligning your plan with project goals and objectives, matching reporting complexity to your project scope, and scheduling all team’s steps you will be able to create a more effective work plan for any project.

It doesn’t matter whether you manage simple tasks or complex portfolio management, do not forget about easy steps for creating powerful work plans that really matter.

Work plans (often shown as Gantt charts) show all the tasks involved in a project, who is responsible for each task, and when the tasks will be completed. Donors normally require you to submit a work plan as part of a proposal. Once your project has started the work plan is used as a monitoring tool to check whether your project is on-track.

This zip file includes Excel work plan templates by day, week, month and quarter (see screen shot below), and one completed example. Once your work plan is complete you may need to insert it into a Word document. This can be done by copying and pasting the table from Excel into Word. If your work plan is very large it may be easier to copy and paste it as a picture.

How to write a work plan

These work plan templates are appropriate when:

  • You need to create a simple work plan for a proposal.
  • You need to create a simple work plan for monitoring a new project.
  • The donor has not given you a template for the work plan.

These work plan templates are NOT appropriate when:

  • The donor has given you a template for the work plan (you should use their template).
  • You need to create a complex work plan for a very large project that has many different teams involved (in this case you may need to use project management software such as Microsoft Project, Basecamp or their free alternatives).

Don’t like this work plan template?
Try these other free work plan templates.

The Work Plan Template by tools4dev is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. All other content is © tools4dev.

Use this free template to help you write a great plan for launching your new business.

A business plan helps you set goals for your business, and plan how you’re going to reach them. When you’re starting out it’s a good idea to do a full and thorough business plan.

Quick-focus planning to make sure you work on the right things for your growing business – every day.

It’s important to take time to reflect on your business strategies and plan. It doesn’t have to be a difficult or time-consuming task.

Implementing your business plan

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  • Keep your business plan as a living document – don’t leave it to gather dust on a shelf.
  • Make sure it’s easily accessible and top-of-mind for you and your team.
  • Reflect your goals in the day-to-day operations of your business.
  • Outline the most practical and cost-effective way to achieve each goal – make a note of any extra resources you’ll need.
  • Make it clear these goals are the top priority for the business.

SWOT your business, and your competition

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A SWOT analysis is a great way to assess what your business does well, and where you’ll need to improve. It can also help you identify ways you can exploit opportunities, and to identify and prepare for potential threats to your business success.

Strengths and weaknesses are typically inside your business — what are you good at, what are you not so good at — while opportunities and threats are external factors.

It can be as simple as drawing a large square, and dividing it into four quadrants – one for each element of the SWOT analysis.


Think about what you, your team, and your business are good at – all the attributes that will help you achieve your goals, eg what you (and your team) do well, any unique skills or expert knowledge, what you/your business do better than your competitors, good processes and systems, and where your business is most profitable.


Think about the things that could stop you from achieving your objectives. This might include what costs you time and/or money, the areas you or your company need to improve in, what resources you lack, which parts of the business aren’t profitable, poor brand awareness, disorganised processes, or a poor online presence. Think about what you can do to minimise your weaknesses.


Think about the external conditions that will help you achieve your goals. How can you do more for your existing customers, or reach new markets? Are there related products and services that could provide opportunities for your business, and how could you use technology to enhance your business?


Consider the external conditions that could damage your business’s performance – things like what’s going on in your industry, and in the economy, the obstacles you face, the strengths of your biggest competitors, and things your competitors are doing that you’re not. Think about how you could try to minimise or manage the threats.

Repeat the exercise for your competition too – it’ll help you identify areas where you can beat them, to fine-tune your niche market, and make sure you’re prepared to address the challenge they pose.

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HR Operations

Employee work performance

Like most employees, you want to do well in your job. In order to do that, you need a clear understanding of what is expected of you. You may also need support and training to meet those expectations.

Performance management isn’t simply a once-a-year evaluation. Good performance management is a continuous, positive collaboration between you and your supervisor. By staying connected with your supervisor all year round, you can make adjustments to your work performance as needed, and your supervisor can assess and support your performance and ability to meet your annual goals.

Planning for the year ahead

You and your supervisor should have a discussion about your work goals for the upcoming year. You should expect to have this discussion around the time of your annual performance review for the previous year.

The discussion may include:

  • A review of your job description. Is it accurate and complete?
  • A list of goals for the coming year. Your goals should be tied to departmental goals and your job description.
  • An assessment of skills and knowledge you need to develop in order to achieve your goals.
  • A discussion of your long-term professional goals. This is a good time to advocate for your professional growth through training and job opportunities.

You and your supervisor should document your goals and any necessary professional development. Make sure you get a copy of this document so that you can refer to it over the next review period.

If you don’t understand any of your goals or expectations, be sure to clarify them with your supervisor.

New employees

New classified non-union and contract covered staff employees, or current classified non-union and contract covered staff employees moving to a new position, are usually required to serve a probationary or trial service period. The length of this period is determined by the applicable collective bargaining agreement or employment program.

Be sure that you understand the goals and expectations you need to meet in order to successfully complete this period and transition to permanent status.

Professional staff don’t have a probationary or trial service period; instead, they serve on an “at will” basis, which means that their appointment can be modified or ended for any reason that does not unlawfully discriminate against the employee or violate public policy.

Staying connected

Meet with your supervisor throughout the year, formally or informally, so that you can receive timely and regular feedback about your performance. These meetings can also be a great time to discuss any additional support or training you need to accomplish your goals.

If your goals change over the course of the year, ask your supervisor to document the changes.

Keep track of your achievements and professional development during the year, particularly accomplishments related to your annual goals. This information can be helpful when it is time for your annual performance review.

Reviewing the year

Performance reviews typically take place annually.

Your annual review has two parts: a written evaluation and a one-on-one meeting with your supervisor to discuss the evaluation.

For the annual performance review, pull out the notes you have been keeping on your achievements over the review period. These notes can be a useful aid if you are asked to complete a self-evaluation. If no self-evaluation is required, offer to summarize your achievements for your supervisor. Remembering all the accomplishments of multiple employees is challenging. Your supervisor may appreciate a reminder when writing your evaluation.

Written evaluation

Your department may have a standard form for performance evaluations. Ask your supervisor for a blank copy of the form so that you can better understand how you are being assessed.

Evaluation forms typically cover the following topics:

  • Quality of work (accuracy, thoroughness, competence)
  • Quantity of work (productivity level, time management, ability to meet deadlines)
  • Job knowledge (skills and understanding of the work)
  • Working relationships (ability to work with others, communication skills)
  • Achievements
One-on-one meeting

For many employees, the face-to-face performance discussion is the most stressful work conversation they’ll have all year. But remember that your supervisor wants you to succeed at your job. If you and your supervisor have been communicating openly and frequently all year round, nothing in your evaluation should come as a surprise.

Ask your supervisor if you can read the written evaluation prior to the meeting. This gives you time to consider the feedback and gather your thoughts before talking in person with your supervisor. And you should have the opportunity to provide input before the written evaluation is finalized.

After you and your supervisor have discussed your evaluation, both of you need to sign the form. Your evaluation is stored in your departmental personnel file for three years.

What if I don’t agree with my evaluation?

Your signature simply means that you have read the document. Signing your evaluation form does not mean that you agree with what has been written.

If you disagree with any part of your evaluation, you can write a letter of response, detailing your view of your performance and how it differs from the evaluation. Check your employment program or collective bargaining agreement for the appropriate process to express disagreement with your evaluation. Additionally, you can contact the University’s Office of the Ombud if you would like support in presenting your concern.

Make a new plan

Once the annual performance review is completed, you and your supervisor should develop and document goals and expectation for the next 12 months.

Reading time: about 6 min

Posted by: Lucid Content Team

8 Steps to CreatingВ a Project Timeline

  1. Write a project scope statement
  2. Create a work breakdown structure (WBS)
  3. Break each work package into tasks
  4. Determine project dependencies
  5. Determine total time needed for each task
  6. Identify resource availability
  7. Identify important milestones
  8. Build your project management timeline

No project plan or charter is complete without a project management timeline. Project management timelines provide a simple visual overview of a project from start to finish and lead to increased work efficiency among teams. As simple as timelines appear when you see them on paper, breaking down a project into an effective timeline may feel overwhelming, especially to novice project managers. So, if this is your first experience creating a project management timeline, or even your 563rd, use these eight no-fail steps to perfect your next timeline.

1. Write a project scope statement.

Determining the scope of your project is another part of the project managementВ process you need to complete before you can create your project timeline. A project scope statement outlines the deliverables you plan to produce by the end of a project.

As a quick example, let’s say you and your friends want to plant a garden. A scope statement could look something like this: We will produce a 100 sq ft vegetable garden that produces tomatoes, peppers, kale, potatoes, peas, green beans, and corn.

2. Create a work breakdown structure (WBS)

To create a work breakdown structure (WBS), start from your scope statement and break your deliverable or deliverables into smaller pieces. You aren’t getting into tasks yet, just smaller deliverables. Another name for this section is the scope baseline, and each sub-deliverable is called a work package.

Continuing with our garden example, you could say that your WBS is to produce:

  • 10 sq ft of tomatoes
  • 10 sq ft of peppers
  • 15 sq ft of kale
  • 20 sq ft of potatoes
  • 15 sq ft of peas
  • 10 sq ft of green beans
  • 20 sq ft of corn

3. Break each work package into tasks

Now you can make a to-do list for each work package. Think about the gap between your baseline and your goal. What needs to happen to get from the starting point to the desired end point? Take note of tasks that are similar across work packages. This process will help you determine dependencies in the next step.

Now make a task list for two of your mini garden work packages and organize them in aВ table:

How to write a work plan

4. Determine project dependencies

Dependencies are tasks that cannot be started until another task has been completed. For example, you can’t plant your tomatoes until after the ground has been tilled. In this scenario, determining dependencies for a project management timeline will be relatively straightforward, but for more complex processes, mapping dependencies might give you a few gray hairs.

Creating a flowchart or diagram is helpful for visualizing and identifying these dependencies.В You may find it helpful to use swimlanes or color coding to designate which team or individual will take responsibility for each task. Here, the work of planting tomatoes and green beans is split into two teams by color:

How to write a work plan

5. Determine total time needed for each task

Go back to your task list or dependency chart and consider how long it will take to accomplish each task. Assume that the responsible party is working diligently on the task without interruptions. If you are unable to accurately estimate the needed time, work on this section with an expert who can give you some guidance.

The example below includes a swimlane to show that all of the buying tasks will be done together.

How to write a work plan

For help with finding dependencies and determining how long your project will take, consider the critical path method.

6. Identify resource availability

Most often, your limiting resource will be the availability of your team members or employees. In this step, you need to consider when they will be able to spend time working on an allotted task. Even though it may only take a day of dedicated work to complete an assignment, you may need to expand the amount of designated time to a few days or even weeks if there are many other projects occurring simultaneously.

In the garden example, it will only take four hours from start to finish, but with everything else going on, your team will need two weekends to get it done. Therefore, when you create aВ projectВ timeline, you will reserve several days for each task.

7. Identify important milestones

Project milestones allow you to track the progress of your projects from start to finish. This way, if you get behind, you will know far in advance of your final deadline and be able to adjust your plans or expectations to stay on target.

8. Build your project management timeline.

ThisВ is the fun part! It’s time to create your project timeline. LineВ your tasks end to end, adjust their lengths to reflect the amount of time allotted, and then add milestones to polish things off. VoilГ ! You have a completed project management timeline. Isn’t it beautiful?

Pro tips

To optimize your experience creatingВ project management timelines,В here areВ a few tips:

  • Before anything else, set the start and end date of the projectВ and adjust your labels.
  • Next, decide whether you are using a line or a block timeline. Use the structure that best fits your project. Basic line timelines help identify key milestones, where block timelines make it easy to visualizeВ teams and specific task progress.В
  • Determine the labels of your project based on the timeline. Labels can be in seconds, hours, days, weeks, or even years.
  • Stack multiple timelines so that labels only appear on the bottom timeline.
  • Color-code the different timelines or rows to organize the project and keep everyone on the same page.В
  • Alter intervals, but only in complete increments.В

If you decide to build your project management timeline in Lucidchart (see our templates below), watch this tutorial for additional tips.

Project management timeline templates

Use these project management timeline templates to get you started!

Ready to get started? Timelines make it easy to keep the entire project on track. Give stakeholders a realistic projection for the project and communicate expectations.В

How to write a work plan

Clarify deadlines and keep projects on track using our timeline maker.

How to convince your employer to let your telecommute

How to write a work plan

Thomas Barwick / Stone /Getty Images

You might not have to find a new job to make it work. Millions of employees work from home at least for half of a traditional workweek. If your employer doesn’t already offer telecommuting or flexible scheduling, you can present a compelling case to make it an option with a telecommuting proposal.

A well-researched proposal can convince your supervisor that telecommuting is a beneficial arrangement for both you and your employer. It also demonstrates your ability to work independently and create a quality product — skills that are essential for a remote employee.

Elements of a Telecommuting Proposal

Introduce the proposal with a brief cover letter, particularly if it will be distributed to multiple people. The proposal itself should be modeled on a business proposal. Think of your employer as a client you are trying to convince, and use your proposal to sell your idea of telecommuting.


Explain what you want and why it is good for the company. If you are proposing a trial or part-time telecommuting arrangement, state that as well. You will have room to expand on your points in later sections, so your intro should be a brief summary.


State any favorable background information, such as your qualifications, positive performance reviews, or years on the job. This is a good place to include information about the company’s existing telecommuting or flexible work policies.

How Telecommuting Would Work

Explain the details of how this arrangement would work. This will likely be an information-dense segment of the proposal so you may want to divide it up with bullet points or section headings. Not only will this make the proposal easier to read, but it will also allow you to highlight information that is most important for your argument.

  1. Responsibilities – What are your job’s daily, weekly and monthly tasks, and how can each of them be done from home? If you are proposing part-time telecommuting, specify which tasks will be done at home and which in the office.
  2. Hours – Will you be working different hours from home that you did in the office? What will they be? Even if your hours will be the same, put them in writing as a safeguard against the expectation that you will be available at any and all hours. If your hours are going to be different from the rest of your team, touch on how you will be available during the standard workday.
  3. Technology – What technology will you need to make this arrangement work? If you have a work laptop, tablet, or phone already, specify that you will continue to use those. If you plan to use your home computer, outline what software or modifications will be needed for you to complete your job responsibilities. Are you able to log into your company’s network from home now? If not, outline what you will need to make that option available.
  4. Cost/Logistics – What will be the cost of new technology, and who will pay for it? Are there low-cost or free options for software and communication that you can plan to use? Be sure to mention if there are services that your employer already pays for that you can continue to use from home. This should also be the section where you describe what your work set up (such as a home office) will be while you telecommute. If you will continue to come into the office part-time, outline a plan for where you will work and whether you will share that space with other employees.
  5. Communication – Outline a plan for communicating with your coworkers, clients, and supervisor. Will you be available by phone, email, or text? Will you use project management software or chat software, such as Slack? In addition to coming up with a plan for daily communication, consider proposing a regular phone or teleconference meeting with your boss and any other teammates. You’ll also want to note any events that would require face-to-face communications.
  6. Accountability – Propose a plan for reviewing your telecommuting situation, such as a meeting with your supervisor every three to six months. This will allow you both to assess how the arrangement is working, request changes, or make suggestions for how to communicate more effectively. Whether you put this in your proposal or discuss it in person, you should ensure that both you and your supervisor have clear expectations for what successful telecommunicating looks like and what would prompt a need to reassess the arrangement.


This isn’t the time to talk about how telecommuting will benefit you personally; instead, make the case for how telecommuting will benefit your employer. How can telecommuting help you do your job better? Will it save the company money? Improve efficiency? Make it easier to match your hours to clients who live in different time zones? Use sales tactics to show how the features of remote work create tangible benefits.

Potential Problems and Solutions

If there are obvious challenges created by telecommuting, especially if they have already been brought up by your supervisor, address them and include how you will solve them. Otherwise, leave problems out of the written proposal. Instead, jot down a list of potential challenges and how they can be addressed. When you speak about telecommuting with your boss, you’ll be ready to propose a solution to any objection raised.


If you have young children at home, it’s better to assume that your childcare arrangements will stay the same and leave your kids out of your proposal. However, if your employer already has expressed concern about telecommuting overlapping with family responsibilities, you may want to outline your childcare arrangements to reassure them that they won’t be paying you to do two things at once.

Next Steps

Giving your supervisor a clear next step to take after they review your proposal. This will keep your proposal moving forward and eliminate months of waiting for a response. Suggest a time for an in-person discussion to answer any questions about your proposal. Thank your employer for considering your request, and let them know when you will be in touch to follow up.

How to Turn Your Current Job Into a Telecommuting Job

Not all companies, or jobs, will be compatible with telecommuting. But as the options for remote work and distance collaboration increase, more employers are considering telecommuting as a regular part of employee scheduling.

If you want to turn your current job into a telecommuting position, start by putting together a telecommuting proposal. Even if the discussion ends up being more informal, a proposal will help you organize your thoughts and make the strongest case possible for your new arrangement.

In addition to the ever-present requirement for a project narrative, some RFPs require a “work plan.” For many novice grant writers, confronting the work plan raises a sense of dread similar to having to prepare a logic model. Unlike logic models, which involve a one-page diagram that displays project elements in a faux flow-chart format, work plans are usually structured as multi-column tables, like the simple illustration in this PDF (or try here for the Word version).

As the attached file shows, the work plan usually contains a blank for goals, with blanks for objectives under each goal and activities for each objective. Other columns may include timeframes, responsibilities, deliverables, data to be collected, and so on.

While it’s possible to create a 10- or even 20-page work plan (the work plan is usually not not counted against the project narrative page limit), there’s little reason to do so, unless you’re required to by the RFP. Instead, one overarching goal statement is generally enough. A goal statement might be, for example:

The project goal is to improve employment and life outcomes for formerly incarcerated cyclops by providing a range of culturally and linguistically appropriate wraparound supportive services.

Use that goal to develop three or four specific and measurable objectives, along with three or four activities for each objective. This will result in a work plan ranging from one to five pages. Each additional goal will (probably pointlessly) increase the page count and the chance to create continuity errors. A compact work plan will clearly summarize why and how the project will be implemented and it will be easy for readers/scorers to understand. That’s enough for a work plan.

It’s easy to introduce continuity errors between the workplan and narrative because goals, objectives, activities, timelines, etc., may be sprinkled throughout the narrative, budget, logic model, and/or forms, depending on the RFP requirements. Details in the work plan must be precisely consistent with all other proposal components. The more you edit each proposal draft, the less you will be able to spot internal inconsistencies within the narrative or between the narrative and the work plan. Inconsistencies will, however, stand out in neon to a reviewer reading the entire proposal for the first time.

We’re experienced grant writers, so we draft work plans after the second proposal draft is completed. But novice grant writers will find it useful to draft the work plan before writing the first draft, as this will help you organize the draft. Novices should also read differences among goals, objectives and activities before tackling the work plan.

A Project Coordinator is a professional who is often involved in the day-to-day operations of their assigned projects. They organize and communicate details related to a specific assignment or task while serving as an interface between team members and managers.

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This Project Coordinator job description template is optimized for posting in online job boards or careers pages. It’s easy to customize with key project coordinator responsibilities for your company.

Project Coordinator responsibilities include:

  • Coordinating project schedules, resources, equipment and information
  • Liaising with clients to identify and define project requirements, scope and objectives
  • Ensuring that clients’ needs are met as the project evolves

How to write a work plan

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Job brief

We are looking for a responsible Project Coordinator to administer and organize all types of projects, from simple activities to more complex plans.

Project Coordinator responsibilities include working closely with our Project Manager to prepare comprehensive action plans, including resources, timeframes and budgets for projects. You will perform various coordinating tasks, like schedule and risk management, along with administrative duties, like maintaining project documentation and handling financial queries. To succeed in this role, you should have excellent time management and communication skills, as you’ll collaborate with clients and internal teams to deliver results on deadlines.

Ultimately, the Project Coordinator’s duties are to ensure that all projects are completed on time, within budget and meet high quality standards.


  • Coordinate project management activities, resources, equipment and information
  • Break projects into doable actions and set timeframes
  • Liaise with clients to identify and define requirements, scope and objectives
  • Assign tasks to internal teams and assist with schedule management
  • Make sure that clients’ needs are met as projects evolve
  • Help prepare budgets
  • Analyze risks and opportunities
  • Oversee project procurement management
  • Monitor project progress and handle any issues that arise
  • Act as the point of contact and communicate project status to all participants
  • Work with the Project Manager to eliminate blockers
  • Use tools to monitor working hours, plans and expenditures
  • Issue all appropriate legal paperwork (e.g. contracts and terms of agreement)
  • Create and maintain comprehensive project documentation, plans and reports
  • Ensure standards and requirements are met through conducting quality assurance tests

Requirements and skills

  • Proven work experience as a Project Coordinator or similar role
  • Experience in project management, from conception to delivery
  • An ability to prepare and interpret flowcharts, schedules and step-by-step action plans
  • Solid organizational skills, including multitasking and time-management
  • Strong client-facing and teamwork skills
  • Familiarity with risk management and quality assurance control
  • Strong working knowledge of Microsoft Project and Microsoft Planner
  • Hands-on experience with project management tools (e.g. Basecamp or Trello)
  • BSc in Business Administration or related field
  • PMP / PRINCE2 certification is a plus

Frequently asked questions

What does a Project Coordinator do?

A Project Coordinator ensures that upcoming projects are implemented successfully by gathering equipment, resources and information. In addition, they maintain budgets for each task while also organizing shareholder meetings to bring together all stakeholders involved with a particular project.

What are the duties and responsibilities of a Project Coordinator?

Project Coordinators are responsible for ensuring the schedule, budget and details of a given task are well organized. They communicate with various departments to keep everyone on board about any changes to the project plan. In addition, they organize reporting, plan meetings and provide updates to project managers.

What makes a good Project Coordinator?

A Project Coordinator’s challenging and fast-paced environment require excellence to keep things running smoothly. They must be able to work well under pressure without sacrificing quality. A good Project Coordinator should be detail-oriented, dependable, a problem solver and a good communicator.

Who does a Project Coordinator work with?

Project Coordinators assist Project Managers by performing various administrative tasks to help projects stay on schedule and within budget.

Hiring Project Coordinator job description

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The only project plan template you’ll ever need (incl. 6 Examples)

So, your next big project just got the green light – good news for you, right? Now it’s time to get started on the next step: project planning. It is imperative that you plan your project thoroughly rather than diving straight in.

The planning process is absolutely essential to the success of any product or service – whether it’s a task as simple as choosing the holiday cards you send to clients or as complex as implementing a new marketing automation software.

Project planning applies to any situation, regardless of the setting. The process can be as formal, informal, detailed, or high-level as you want it to be. Planning a campaign for a new client? Get some project planning underway before you start managing expectations.

Updating all of your marketing materials? Create a project plan to successfully guide your team through this undertaking.

What is project planning?

Project planning is the conceptual component of any project that begins after the project proposal has been accepted and should be completed before you actually start working on a new project.

Project planning is a key step that requires managers to detail the full scope of the project. As such, managers outline the core goals of projects and determine what needs to be done to achieve them.

The factors that the project manager needs to consider for project planning include:

  • Outlining every task and milestone
  • Setting the delivery date
  • Outlining the overall timeline of the project
  • Defining SMART goals for the project
  • Listing the number of people required and their roles
  • Detailing the required financial investment
  • Determining costs for each phase
  • Outlining needed resources
  • Involving people in the review and approval process
  • Identifying any potential risks
  • Adhering to quality standards

The amount of time required to conduct project planning largely depends on the size and scope of the project. For instance, a new multi-platform marketing campaign will require a more detailed project plan than setting up new pages on a website.

The planning process keeps projects focused and well-managed, and it limits the likelihood that the team will encounter any risks.

What is a project plan?

A project plan is a centralized reference document that outlines your planned approach to the project.

The project plan also contains a series of fixed stages, with the requirements, time frame, and deliverables of each stage. It is important that all objectives are quantifiable so that it is immediately clear what needs to be achieved before the project can progress to the next stage.

With such a plan, team members can be kept in the loop regarding what will be done, by whom, and when.

A good project plan will answer all of the major questions:

  • What are we creating?
  • Why are we creating it?
  • How are we going to create it?
  • When are we executing each step?
  • How long will each step take?

Remember, each project plan will be, by its nature, totally unique.

As such, a project plan document needs to detail every foreseeable element of the project. In order to display this much information in a logical manner, it is important to choose the right format for a project plan. Popular choices for project plans include a Gantt chart or a written piece in the form of a PDF document.

Some managers choose to create a plan manually; however, it is far quicker and easier to create a standardized document using a project plan template.

As project plans vary considerably based on complexity, your project plan could take a number of different forms. If the project is a particularly brief one, then you may wish to just sketch out a shortened version. But if your project is more complex, a project plan will be longer and contain a number of specific, detailed sections.

How to write a work plan

How to write a work plan

How to write a work plan

What Is Project Management?

Project management involves the planning and organization of a company’s resources to move a specific task, event, or duty towards completion. It can involve a one-time project or an ongoing activity, and resources managed include personnel, finances, technology, and intellectual property.

Project management is often associated with fields in engineering and construction and, more lately, healthcare and information technology (IT), which typically have a complex set of components that have to be completed and assembled in a set fashion to create a functioning product.

No matter what the industry is, the project manager tends to have roughly the same job: to help define the goals and objectives of the project and determine when the various project components are to be completed and by whom. They also create quality control checks to ensure completed components meet a certain standard.

Key Takeaways

  • On a very basic level, project management includes the planning, initiation, execution, monitoring, and closing of a project.
  • Many different types of project management methodologies and techniques exist, including traditional, waterfall, agile, and lean.
  • Project management is used across industries and is an important part of the success of construction, engineering, and IT companies.

Understanding Project Management

Generally speaking, the project management process includes the following stages: planning, initiation, execution, monitoring, and closing.

From start to finish, every project needs a plan that outlines how things will get off the ground, how they will be built, and how they will finish. For example, in architecture, the plan starts with an idea, progresses to drawings, and moves on to blueprint drafting, with thousands of little pieces coming together between each step. The architect is just one person providing one piece of the puzzle. The project manager puts it all together.

Every project usually has a budget and a time frame. Project management keeps everything moving smoothly, on time, and on budget. That means when the planned time frame is coming to an end, the project manager may keep all the team members working on the project to finish on schedule.

Types of Project Management

Many types of project management have been developed to meet the specific needs of certain industries or types of projects. They include the following:

1. Waterfall Project Management

This is similar to traditional project management but includes the caveat that each task needs to be completed before the next one starts. Steps are linear and progress flows in one direction—like a waterfall. Because of this, attention to task sequences and timelines are very important in this type of project management. Often, the size of the team working on the project will grow as smaller tasks are completed and larger tasks begin.

2. Agile Project Management

The computer software industry was one of the first to use this methodology. With the basis originating in the 12 core principles of the Agile Manifesto, agile project management is an iterative process focused on the continuous monitoring and improvement of deliverables. At its core, high-quality deliverables are a result of providing customer value, team interactions, and adapting to current business circumstances.

Agile project management does not follow a sequential stage-by-stage approach. Instead, phases of the project are completed in parallel to each other by various team members in an organization. This approach can find and rectify errors without having to restart the entire procedure.

3. Lean Project Management

This methodology is all about avoiding waste, both of time and of resources. The principles of this methodology were gleaned from Japanese manufacturing practices. The main idea behind them is to create more value for customers with fewer resources.

There are many more methodologies and types of project management than listed here, but these are some of the most common. The type used depends on the preference of the project manager or the company whose project is being managed.

Example of Project Management

Let’s say a project manager is tasked with leading a team to develop software products. They begin by identifying the scope of the project. They then assign tasks to the project team, which can include developers, engineers, technical writers, and quality assurance specialists. The project manager creates a schedule and sets deadlines.

Often, a project manager will use visual representations of workflow, such as Gantt charts or PERT charts, to determine which tasks are to be completed by which departments. They set a budget that includes sufficient funds to keep the project within budget even in the face of unexpected contingencies. The project manager also makes sure the team has the resources it needs to build, test, and deploy a software product.

When a large IT company, such as Cisco Systems Inc., acquires smaller companies, a key part of the project manager’s job is to integrate project team members from various backgrounds and instill a sense of group purpose about meeting the end goal. Project managers may have some technical know-how but also have the important task of taking high-level corporate visions and delivering tangible results on time and within budget.

A key part of your application is your research proposal. Whether you are applying for a self-funded or studentship you should follow the guidance below.

If you are looking specifically for advice on writing your PhD by published work research proposal, read our guide.

You are encouraged to contact us to discuss the availability of supervision in your area of research before you make a formal application, by visiting our areas of research.

What is your research proposal used for and why is it important?

  • It is used to establish whether there is expertise to support your proposed area of research
  • It forms part of the assessment of your application
  • The research proposal you submit as part of your application is just the starting point, as your ideas evolve your proposed research is likely to change

How long should my research proposal be?

It should be 2,000–3,500 words (4-7 pages) long.

What should be included in my research proposal?

Your proposal should include the following:


  • Your title should give a clear indication of your proposed research approach or key question


You should include:

  • the background and issues of your proposed research
  • identify your discipline
  • a short literature review
  • a summary of key debates and developments in the field


You should formulate these clearly, giving an explanation as to what problems and issues are to be explored and why they are worth exploring


You should provide an outline of:

  • the theoretical resources to be drawn on
  • the research approach (theoretical framework)
  • the research methods appropriate for the proposed research
  • a discussion of advantages as well as limits of particular approaches and methods


You should include an outline of the various stages and corresponding time lines for developing and implementing the research, including writing up your thesis.

For full-time study your research should be completed within three years, with writing up completed in the fourth year of registration.

For part-time study your research should be completed within six years, with writing up completed by the eighth year.


You should include:

  • a list of references to key articles and texts discussed within your research proposal
  • a selection of sources appropriate to the proposed research
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How to write a work plan


  • How Much Can You Earn as a Sales Representative?
  • Sales Job Interview Answers
  • Advantages & Two Disadvantages of Using Team Appraisals
  • Pay Scale for Sales Reps With Textbook Publishing
  • What Does a Lumber Sales Manager Make?

A sales action plan dictates your company’s goals for the year. It can help you project potential revenue, but it can also act as a tool for motivation. Writing a sales action plan requires you to look critically at where you expect to generate revenue and set goals that challenge your sales team to complete them. Whether you wish to increase revenue by 10 percent or acquire a certain number of new clients, a sales action plan will keep you and your team focused on the goals you need to grow your business.

Write down the goals you will set for your sales team. These goals should be as specific as possible to remain measurable. At a minimum, your sales plan should consist of selling to existing clients with a plan to acquire new business.

Set a realistic time frame in which you believe you can achieve your goals. This due date is something that all of your team members should be able to agree on. Hold employees accountable to this due date.

Motivate your sales team with incentives. Cash prizes will usually help motivate your team, but you may also wish to explore incentives like expensive items that employees want but would never buy for themselves.

Refine the strategies your sales team will use throughout the sales cycle. Determine how much of your business has to come from new sales versus the amount that is expected from your existing customer base. Refine the scripts your team uses for prospecting calls, and devote your resources to training them how to talk to decision makers. Use weekly meetings as a chance to get feedback on common rejections your sales team hears and brainstorm responses.

Communicate with your sales team to discuss potential obstacles. Ask your team what holds them back, where they are succeeding, and get a feel for how they define success. Highlight big wins, and go over the basics of how to close a sale with your team, walk them through it and keep them motivated.

How to write a work plan


A business case provides justification for undertaking a project, programme or portfolio. It evaluates the benefit, cost and risk of alternative options and provides a rationale for the preferred solution.

Five elements of a business case

A common way of thinking about a business case is using these five elements:

  1. Strategic context: The compelling case for change.
  2. Economic analysis: Return on investment based on investment appraisal of options.
  3. Commercial approach: Derived from the sourcing strategy and procurement strategy.
  4. Financial case: Affordability to the organisation in the time frame.
  5. Management approach: Roles, governance structure, life cycle choice, etc.

The business case is reviewed and revised at decision gates as more mature estimates and information become available. The approved business case provides a record of the decisions made by governance about how to achieve the required return on investment from the work. It documents the options considered and it is normal practice to include the ‘do-nothing’ option as a reference. Through this approach, the business case becomes a record of the recommended option with rationale and evidence to support the decision.

The presentation of the business case, if approved, results in the formal startup of the project, programme or portfolio. The sponsor owns the business case.

It brings together the investment appraisal with evidence of how the investment is intended to lead to realisation of the intended benefits. All projects must have a business case that demonstrates the value of the work and it is outlined during the concept phase of the life cycle.

How to write a work plan

Related reading

Lies, damn lies and . business cases BLOG
How do you feel when you’re asked to write a business case? If you are like most people, you see it as neither a pleasant, nor a worthwhile task. Most people see the business case process as a form of medieval torture administered by accountants. read more

How to nail your business case BLOG
Business cases can be tricky to get right. It calls on a lot of different skills – writing, presentation, budget management, even sales skills – to create a strong case for the project, its scope, benefits and the funds allocated to it. read more

The case for a business case NEWS
The case for a business case was delivered by Peter Langley for the South East Branch at BAE in Rochester. read more

From Business Case to Benefits Realisation: Theory and Practice in UK Government Projects BLOG
In UK government Projects, HM Treasury Green Book and Five Case model provide a structured approach to making and appraising investment proposals. read more

Developing Compelling Business Cases a product and a process Webinar NEWS
There’s an increasing requirement, across both the public and private sector, to ensure that investment decisions are based on sound reasoning and with clear spending objectives. read more

APM Body of Knowledge 7th edition

Read more about business cases in chapter one of the APM Body of Knowledge 7 th edition.

The APM Body of Knowledge 7th edition is a foundational resource providing the concepts, functions and activities that make up professional project management. It reflects the developing profession, recognising project-based working at all levels, and across all sectors for influencers, decision makers, project professionals and their teams.

The seventh edition continues in the spirit of previous editions, collaborating with the project community to create a foundation for the successful delivery of projects, programmes and portfolios.

How to write a work plan

COVID-19 vaccines have arrived. As more and more municipalities welcome workers back to their respective offices—particularly with more recent positive vaccination news—keep in mind a few tips and best practices when communicating your return-to-work plan to your employees.

This blog was originally published in spring 2020 and was most recently updated on July 1, 2021.

What Should I Include in My Message?

HR administrators are responsible for ensuring their teams are safe and following all of the local, state, and federal guidelines that keep offices free from coronavirus outbreaks.

In your return-to-work message, outline the following talking points:

  • Thank them for their patience and understanding during the process
  • Planned return date, including phases if relevant
  • A reminder that at-risk employees can work with HR to identify a plan to address their safety concerns
  • Key processes that have been implemented to keep the space clean—and employees safe
  • What’s expected of employees
  • Available resources to help with stressors, including employee assistance programs (EAPs)

Reminder: It is advised that you consider all of your options before moving forward with reopening your office. Learn more about COVID-19 waivers and questions you can’t ask employees regarding the coronavirus.

Return to Work Template

Use the following example (or downloadable template) when constructing your own communications:

We are very excited that our return to the office is getting closer and closer! As mentioned, we will be sending a series of emails covering practical stuff and logistics for our return. Please see below for some additional items pertaining to our return to HQ.

  1. Time Tracking:Starting [date], please clock in and out using [platform]. Please reach out to your manager if you have questions on how to track hours.
  2. Remote Work:As of [date], all team members will be returning to the office. For some, this may be your “first day”. For any non-exempt (hourly) team members, the office will be the only place for your work. No work should be done outside of the office. If you have any questions about this, please reach out to HR directly.
  3. Lunch:We want you to take a break during the day. Non-exempt team members are required to take a minimum of at least 30 minutes. Don’t forget to clock out at that time.
  4. Parking:Please feel free to park [location]. The parking stipend for HQ workers will be [amount] / month. [date] will be the first paycheck that this is reinstated.

Anticipated FAQ

  1. Are there preset office hours?Generally, the office is open from [Time]. You’ll find when you return, there is a natural flow of when the day begins and ends.
  2. Am I able to work at a different time?We do allow flexibility. During certain times, like Q4, there are more defined hours for certain teams
  3. Is there a dress code?We have a casual work environment. Wear what makes you comfortable.
  4. I am paid hourly. If I wanted to check out a new restaurant downtown, can I take a longer lunch break?Yes. We ask that you clock out when doing so, and to be mindful of your clients and team members’ needs that day/week.

How to Let Employees Know How Your Company Will Return to the Office

To learn more about how to communicate these updates, watch the following HR Party of One tutorial:

Other Important Pandemic Return-to-Work Considerations

As you prepare to open your office, you may encounter four different types of complications:

  1. Administrative Details and Concerns: Many employers added new staff members during the pandemic. This can include anything from where to park and what to wear to the office to when to take lunch and when to arrive and depart for your role.
  2. Prepping the Physical Office Space: It’s entirely possible that an organization hasn’t opened its office since March 2020. If this is the case—and even if it isn’t—HR leaders should make a list of ways in which they can prepare the office to welcome employees back. This includes discarding trash and unused boxes, rearranging seating charts, making name tags for new employees, and more.
  3. Setting a New Precedent: Once the physical office space is ready, HR needs to consider how it will set the stage for the first day back. Don’t take for granted that certain parts of the company culture remain after a year-plus of remote work. HR may even need to reintroduce the culture to the staff to set a new precedent moving forward.
  4. Handling Employee Turnover:Turnover was incredibly common during the pandemic. Teams might even expect employees to leave their ranks if they’re required to return to the office. Consider adopting an offboarding strategy to avoid inconsistencies.

Other Coronavirus Reopening Resources

In addition to the above resources, the BerniePortal blog includes other great need-to-know info about operating safely during the pandemic, including:

How to write a work plan

How to write a work plan

Written by
Drew Gieseke
Drew Gieseke is an aPHR®-certified marketing professional who writes about HR, compliance, and healthcare solutions.

Updated January 5, 2022 Updated January 5, 2022

How to write a work plan

How to write a work plan

Guest post: Rachel Campbell

Take a look at our top seven time management tips

With exams approaching, you should be thinking about how to get better at time management and organize your days so you can strike the right balance between home, work and university life. You should also try and eat some brain food – and no, we don’t mean crisps and energy drinks!

By taking the time to arrange your priorities, you can give yourself the best chance of staying on track and organized during the exam period, which in turn can help reduce stress levels, something that can be the difference between success and failure at university.

Take a look at our top seven time management tips, so that you can do your best at university and also find moments to relax and even earn some money on the side.

1) What do you have to do to manage your time effectively?

The first stage of improving your time management is to list absolutely everything that you have to do. This may sound obvious, but speaking from experience, most students tend to leave important tasks until the last minute, which can impact on the quality of their work and their overall grade.

Include any university deadlines as well as any shifts you work on the list, and make a note of how much time each priority will take out of your schedule.

2) Create a life schedule

Whether it’s a pin-up planner, a timetable or a calendar on your phone, find an organizing tool that works well for you and add your list of priorities to it. There are many time management apps that can help with this. Also, think about when you are most alert, so that you can plan your study periods around these times.

Find time for socializing, but also make sure that you get enough sleep. Most people need between 7 to 8 hours sleep every night to remain focused and alert during study periods.

3) Be flexible but realistic

Typically, allow around 8-10 hours a day for working, studying, socializing and anything else practical you need to do.

As a full-time student, you’re expected to dedicate 35 hours a week to university studies, including the time you spend in seminars and lectures. If you only spend 15 hours a week attending tutor-led learning, you should use the extra 20 hours for independent study.

It’s also important to remember that things often take longer than expected. So, allow a little extra time in case you spend longer on a task than you thought you would.

4) Allow time for planning to avoid repetition

Taking the time to research, plan and think about your work is crucial for good time management. Allow yourself the time to process new information and plan how you are going to use it, as this can help you to avoid having to re-read and repeat any research.

One way of effectively planning before researching is to make a list of everything you want to find out, so that you can make notes below each subheading as you go.

5) Avoid procrastination and distraction

One way to avoid procrastination is to think about the different places you have been when studying – where were you the most focused? Where were you most distracted? Is there anything you can do to make studying actually somewhat enjoyable?

Remember, what works for one person might not necessarily work for you. For some, studying with friends can limit their productivity. But for others, studying in groups can help to increase motivation and avoid procrastination.

6) Exercise to clear your head in between study sessions

Believe it or not, exercise works in the same way sleep does. It can focus your state of mind, helping you to clear your head and boost your brain power in between study sessions. If you’re new to exercise, aim to fit in a 10-minute run here and there, steadily increasing the amount you do as you go on.

7) Has your time schedule been effective?

Constantly reviewing and reassessing your schedule can help you to recognize whether you need to make any changes in order to help you complete any university tasks and also have time to relax and spend time with friends and family.

Rachel Campbell is a creative content writer for Pure Student Living, a provider of high quality student accommodation situated in a number of locations throughout London.

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(Lead image: David Vega (Flickr))

This article was originally published in February 2015 . It was last updated in January 2022

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How to write a work plan

Templates to create your own CV and cover letter, plus examples of CVs and cover letters.

What’s on this page?

  • Skills-focused CV for changing careers or gaps in work history
  • Skills-focused CV for school leavers
  • Work-focused CV for career progression
  • Te reo Māori CV
  • Specialist CVs
  • Cover letter template and example
  • Find out more

Create a CV and cover letter from our templates and save them

Use our templates to create your CV and cover letter. You’ll need to save them to your computer.

  • Save your CV as both a Word document and a PDF. An employer may need either one of these file formats.
  • Label your CV files with your name, the application date, and the job you’re applying for.
  • If you update your Word document, remember to also create a new PDF.

Create a CV online with CV Builder and it saves automatically

Use our CV Builder to create your CV online and it will automatically save to your account.

Skills-focused CV for changing careers or gaps in work history

Use our skills-focused CV template if you:

  • have gaps between jobs
  • don’t have much work history
  • are returning to the workforce after a break
  • are changing to a new career.
  • Skills-focused CV example (Word – 27KB)
  • Skills-focused CV example (PDF – 0.1MB)
  • Skills-focused CV template (Word – 25KB)
  • Skills-focused CV template (PDF – 0.4MB)

Get information on how to describe skills in your CV:

Skills-focused CV for school leavers

Use our skills-focused school leaver CV template if you:

Work-focused CV for career progression

Use our work-focused CV template if you:

  • want to highlight your work experience and career progression
  • are changing to a similar job
  • are progressing to a higher level role.
  • Work-focused CV example (Word – 27KB)
  • Work-focused CV example (PDF – 0.4MB)
  • Work-focused CV template (Word – 26KB)
  • Work-focused CV template (PDF – 0.4MB)

Te reo Māori CV

Find tips on writing a te reo Māori and English CV:

Specialist CVs

Some careers require a particular style of CV.

Check out the links below for information on how to create CVs for:

  • academic careers
  • creative careers
  • engineering careers
  • health careers
  • legal careers
  • teaching careers.
  • University of Otago website – CV information (PDF – 0.3MB)
  • University of Oxford website – CVs for creative careers
  • Victoria University website – CV/Resume Preparation for Teaching (PDF – 0.7MB)

Cover letter template and example

Use our cover letter template to create your cover letter. You’ll need to save this to your computer.

More In Retirement Plans

  • IRAs
  • Types of Retirement Plans
  • Required Minimum Distributions
  • Published Guidance
  • Forms & Publications
  • Correcting Plan Errors
  • News
  • Topic Index

You may be able to claim a deduction on your individual federal income tax return for the amount you contributed to your IRA. See .

Roth IRAs

Roth IRA contributions aren’t deductible.

Traditional IRAs

  • Retirement plan at work: Your deduction may be limited if you (or your spouse, if you are married) are covered by a retirement plan at work and your income exceeds certain levels.
  • No retirement plan at work: Your deduction is allowed in full if you (and your spouse, if you are married) aren’t covered by a retirement plan at work.

These charts show the income range in which your deduction may be disallowed if you or your spouse participates in a retirement plan at work:


  • IRA Deduction if You ARE Covered by a Retirement Plan at Work – 2022
  • IRA Deduction if You Are NOT Covered by a Retirement Plan at Work – 2022 (deduction is limited only if your spouse IS covered by a retirement plan)


  • IRA Deduction if You ARE Covered by a Retirement Plan at Work – 2021
  • IRA Deduction if You Are NOT Covered by a Retirement Plan at Work – 2021 (deduction is limited only if your spouse IS covered by a retirement plan)

See Publication 590-A, Contributions to Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRAs), for additional information, including how to report your IRA contributions on your individual federal income tax return.

A dissertation or thesis is a long piece of academic writing based on original research. It is usually submitted as part of a PhD or master’s, and sometimes as part of a bachelor’s degree.

Your dissertation is probably the longest piece of writing you’ve ever done, and it can be intimidating to know where to start. This article helps you work out exactly what you should include and where to include it.

You can also download our full dissertation template in .docx or Google Docs format. The template includes a ready-made table of contents with notes on what to include in each chapter. You can adapt it to your own requirements.

Download Word template Download Google Docs template

Table of contents

  1. Deciding on your dissertation’s structure
  2. Title page
  3. Acknowledgements
  4. Abstract
  5. Table of contents
  6. List of figures and tables
  7. List of abbreviations
  8. Glossary
  9. Introduction
  10. Literature review / Theoretical framework
  11. Methodology
  12. Results
  13. Discussion
  14. Conclusion
  15. Reference list
  16. Appendices
  17. Editing and proofreading
  18. Checklist
  19. Free lecture slides

Deciding on your dissertation’s structure

Not all dissertations are structured exactly the same – the form your research takes will depend on your location, discipline, topic and approach.

For example, dissertations in the humanities are often structured more like a long essay, building an overall argument to support a central thesis, with chapters organized around different themes or case studies.

But if you’re doing empirical research in the sciences or social sciences, your dissertation should generally contain all of the following elements. In many cases, each will be a separate chapter, but sometimes you might combine them. For example, in certain kinds of qualitative social science, the results and discussion will be woven together rather than separated.

The order of sections can also vary between fields and countries. For example, some universities advise that the conclusion should come before the discussion.

If in doubt about how your thesis or dissertation should be structured, always check your department’s guidelines and consult with your supervisor.

Title page

The very first page of your document contains your dissertation’s title, your name, department, institution, degree program, and submission date. Sometimes it also includes your student number, your supervisor’s name, and the university’s logo. Many programs have strict requirements for formatting the dissertation title page.

What can proofreading do for your paper?

Scribbr editors not only correct grammar and spelling mistakes, but also strengthen your writing by making sure your paper is free of vague language, redundant words and awkward phrasing.

How to write a work plan

On Friday, May 6, the NPC Standing Committee (NPCSC) released its legislative plan for 2022 (Plan). The Plan was preliminarily approved in November 2021 and finalized by the Council of Chairpersons on April 11. It lists bills that are scheduled for review or research this year, and also sets forth priorities for all aspects of the NPCSC’s legislative work in 2022. As usual, we will focus on the legislative projects listed in the Plan below.

The Plan schedules 39 projects for review in 2022, the second largest batch ever included in a publicly available annual legislative plan. The main themes this year continue to include government institutional reforms, economic reforms, public health, environmental protection, education, and national and public security. Like its previous two iterations, the Plan does not assign bills to be submitted for an initial review to particular NPCSC sessions to allow for greater flexibility.

As the Plan was first adopted in late 2021, it includes three bills that have since been enacted:

The following three bills have also submitted for deliberation as planned and are still pending:

The remaining nine bills that were pending as of the end of 2021 will return for further review according to the following schedule:

  • June session: draft Law Against Telecom and Online Fraud [反电信网络诈骗法]; draft amendment to the Anti-Monopoly Law [反垄断法]; draft amendment to the NPCSC Rules of Procedure [全国人民代表大会常务委员会议事规则]; draft Yellow River Protection Law [黄河保护法]; and draft revision to the Emergency Response Law [突发事件应对法].
  • August session: draft revision to the Animal Husbandry Law [畜牧法]; draft revision to the Agricultural Products Quality and Safety Law [农产品质量安全法]; and draft revision to the Company Law [公司法].
  • October session: draft revision to the Wild Animals Protection Law [野生动物保护法].

The NPCSC is scheduled to consider another 24 bills this year:

All of these projects have appeared in the 13 th NPCSC’s prior legislative plans, with four exceptions. First, the Legislation Law may be amended to incorporate newer forms of legislation, in particular the State Supervision Commission’s supervision regulations [监察法规], into China’s legislative system, and to codify recent reforms of the recording-and-review process. Second, the proposal to formulate a Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Ecological Conservation Law was green-lit by the Communist Party leadership last December to implement a 2021 central policy document on conservation and sustainable development of the Tibetan Plateau. Third, the next round of amendments to the Civil Procedure Law (which was last amended last December) is expected focus on updating the procedures for foreign-related cases and for retrials. Finally, the proposed Financial Stability Law is aimed at providing “lasting mechanisms to ensure financial stability,” in support of the Party’s “tough battle” to prevent and defuse major financial risks; the People’s Bank of China recently solicited public comments on a draft of the Law.

Aside from the projects listed above, the Plan also leaves open the possibility that unenumerated bills may be considered to implement the Party’s decisions or to improve legislation on public health, foreign-related issues, or military affairs. In particular, the Plan includes detailed goals for foreign-related legislation, vowing to advance “special” legislation in this area, “improve foreign-related clauses and provisions, make up for the institutional shortcomings of foreign-related laws, and speed up the building of a system of foreign-related legal norms.”

Finally, the Plan concludes the NPCSC’s 2022 legislative agenda with a list of “preparatory projects”: bills that will eventually be enacted, but for now are lower priority, so unlikely to come before the NPCSC in 2022. Bills page are not always available for these projects.

  • Amendments or revisions
    • Urban Residents’ Committees Organic Law [城市居民委员会组织法]
    • Commercial Banks Law [商业银行法]
    • Insurance Law [保险法]
    • Law on the People’s Bank of China[中国人民银行法]
    • Anti–Money Laundering Law [反洗钱法]
    • Anti–Unfair Competition Law [反不正当竞争法]
    • Accounting Law [会计法]
    • National Defense Education Law [国防教育法]
    • Counterespionage Law [反间谍法]
    • People’s Police Law [人民警察法]
    • Teachers Law [教师法]
    • Marine Environmental Protection Law [海洋环境保护法]
    • Exit-Entry Animals and Plants Quarantine Law [进出境动植物检疫法]
    • Charity Law [慈善法]
    • Arbitration Law [仲裁法]
  • New laws
    • Farmland Protection Law [耕地保护法]
    • Real Property Registration Law [不动产登记法]
    • Pharmacists Law [药师法]
    • Telecommunications Law [电信法]
    • Healthcare Security Law [医疗保障法]
    • Law on Ensuring the Operation of State Organs [机关运行保障法]
    • Law on China Fire and Rescue Force and Personnel [国家综合性消防救援队伍和人员法]
    • Hazardous Chemicals Safety Law [危险化学品安全法]
    • Barrier-Free Environments Construction Law [无障碍环境建设法]
    • Cybercrime Prevention and Control Law [网络犯罪防治法]

How to write a work plan

If you need a sample action plan to get your business in shape, then use the following guidelines to design your next MS Word template.

An Action Plan is a series of steps that helps you achieve your goals in measurable ways.

The key is to tie your goals to targets you can reach – and measure your success at each step! Here’s how to do it.

How to write a work plan

How to Write an Action Plan

Use these ten steps to create your next action plan.

#1 Identify Major Goals

Write a one page document that identifies what you want to accomplish.

Break out the main objectives, budget, timelines and then drill down into the key assumptions, risks and issues that may arise and the contingencies to address these.

To make your action plan more realistic, identify the issues you are likely to encounter as otherwise it may prove impractical to implement.

#2 Create Tasks

The next step is to assign tasks to different team members.

Depending on your setup, assign tasks by name or by role.

For example, if you work in a large software company, and the turnover is high, then enter the role of the person rather than the title. Otherwise, you will need to revise the MS Word docs every time a person comes or goes!

#3 Assign Tasks Based on Skills

Delegate tasks to team members who can perform these skills.

Otherwise the person you assigned it to may not prove equal to the task, thereby undermining the project’s success.

#4 Lists Action Steps

Each task should cover one specific and measurable activity.

Don’t merge two tasks into one line in the worksheet.

Keep tasks as unique as possible as this helps trace the root cause should an issue arise.

#5 Update Status

In your MS Excel file, create a column and enter in the Status of the task.

Example fields may be Assigned, Completed, and Under Review.

Also if you have a list of tasks that need to be performed in order, then create a master To Do spreadsheet and rank them in sequential order.

#6 Prioritize Tasks

As some action steps are more important that others, give these a higher ranking in the Excel file.

This helps you identify the key tasks that need to be performed first, then second and so on.

It also helps you see at a glance where/who needs to be chased up if needs be.

Delete tasks once completed or update their status.

#7 Get Feedback

Communicate with all team members during the writing, reviewing and assessment phases.

Include as much feedback as possible as update the documents to reflect these changes.

Use Track Changes in MS Word to track all the changes to the document and when revising the template.

#8 Execute Tasks

Once you have finished building the Action Plan Template, send it to all team members. If necessary, post it on the Intranet.

Track all the tasks in the MS Word and Excel templates and share the status updates in the Progress Reports.

#9 Assess Success and Failures

Make sure all team members perform their tasks as per the deadlines.

If these dates prove to be difficult to achieve, then revise the dates after consulting the other project stakeholders.

When you see an error, capture it immediately, update the document template.

Destroy previous versions.

#10 Monitor Results

Finally, check to see how successful the action plan was implemented.

It’s naive to think that the first release will be perfect.

Expect issues to arise and make the adjustments as necessary.

Use an Excel file to track your results and keep this for future projects. Also, thank everyone for their involvement.

How to write a work plan


Action Plans work if they are achievable, results-orientated, and measurable.

Where most Action Plans fail is when the team cannot perform the tasks within the timeframes or the results are not measured and reconfigured accordingly.

Next week, we will look at this and show you how to create Action Plans that resolve these issues by closing the gap between abstract ideas and concrete results.

This web site is designed to provide information about Gantt charts that will help you create and benefit from them.

This web site is designed to provide information about Gantt charts that will help you create and benefit from them.

How to write a work plan

How to write a work plan

How to write a work plan

How to write a work plan

A Gantt chart, commonly used in project management, is one of the most popular and useful ways of showing activities (tasks or events) displayed against time. On the left of the chart is a list of the activities and along the top is a suitable time scale. Each activity is represented by a bar; the position and length of the bar reflects the start date, duration and end date of the activity. This allows you to see at a glance:

  • What the various activities are
  • When each activity begins and ends
  • How long each activity is scheduled to last
  • Where activities overlap with other activities, and by how much
  • The start and end date of the whole project

To summarize, a Gantt chart shows you what has to be done (the activities) and when (the schedule).

How to write a work plan

Gantt Chart History

The first Gantt chart was devised in the mid 1890s by Karol Adamiecki, a Polish engineer who ran a steelworks in southern Poland and had become interested in management ideas and techniques.

Some 15 years after Adamiecki, Henry Gantt, an American engineer and project management consultant, devised his own version of the chart and it was this that became widely known and popular in western countries. Consequently, it was Henry Gantt whose name was to become associated with charts of this type.

Originally Gantt charts were prepared laboriously by hand; each time a project changed it was necessary to amend or redraw the chart and this limited their usefulness, continual change being a feature of most projects. Nowadays, however, with the advent of computers and project management software, Gantt charts can be created, updated and printed easily.

How to write a work plan

How to write a work plan

Today, Gantt charts are most commonly used for tracking project schedules. For this it is useful to be able to show additional information about the various tasks or phases of the project, for example how the tasks relate to each other, how far each task has progressed, what resources are being used for each task and so on.

Editorial: How do we make an HIV and TB plan that has greater impact?

There is good reason to be sceptical about the link between healthcare policy and implementation in South Africa. Policies such as those on mental health and palliative care, for example, may be good on paper but have generally gone unimplemented. The Competition Commission’s Health Market Inquiry is arguably one of the most impressive and thorough investigations into a set of healthcare issues in recent years but most of the HMI report’s recommendations are gathering dust.

When it comes to HIV and TB there is also a disconnect but of a different type.

Government is clearly doing a lot of work on HIV and TB – some very good, some less so. On the whole, though, decisions appear to be made in parallel with, rather than guided by the relevant policies.

Related Posts

Part of the reason for this is that the key policy document, the National Strategic Plan (NSP) for HIV, TB, and STIs 2017 – 2022, is tied up with, and widely seen to be a product of, the South African National AIDS Council (SANAC).

While SANAC is playing an important role in liaising with large donors such as the Global Fund, it has in recent years been impotent when it comes to influencing key HIV and TB policy decisions. Power appears to be centred in the Minister of Health and National Department of Health with SANAC and the NSP mostly just an afterthought.

Why then should we care about the new NSP?

Both HIV and TB remain public health crises in South Africa. It is clearly better to have a shared strategy for our response to these diseases than not. A better question might thus be how we should go about creating the kind of NSP that would have the greatest impact and what a more impactful NSP might look like.

A good starting point is to recognise that the process of developing the NSP can be valuable in itself – it doesn’t only have to be a means to an end. The process is an opportunity to dig deep into the data, to have an evidence-informed debate about our policy priorities, and ideally to come to a shared understanding of what is needed.

How to write a work plan

Running such a process will be far from easy and will require strong and intentional leadership. While everyone should be heard, not everyone’s pet project can be included in the NSP. On the other hand, an NSP overly controlled by consultants and ‘insiders’ might leave many feeling they have no skin in the game. And of course, there will be political pressures and several strong personalities to contend with. It really won’t be easy.

While replicating a consultation process at the scale of the HMI is not realistic given time constraints, a case may well be made for a similar process by which people publicly present their inputs (written and/or in-person) to a panel of independent experts who can then interrogate each input. In the case of the HMI, such an ‘inquiry’ style format had the benefit of both hearing a wide variety of inputs and taking those inputs seriously by subjecting them to critical scrutiny.

One risk of a less intentional process is that we end up with an NSP that is little more than a long shopping list of things that would be nice to have, but that we may or may not get. There is some utility in being able to point to the NSP and say this or that intervention is mentioned and therefore we must implement it but on the whole, there is little point in having a strategy if that strategy doesn’t make the tough choices.

How to write a work planA TAC activist address the attendees at a World AIDS Day event. PHOTO: Denvor De Wee/Spotlight

What kind of document should we work toward?

At its essence, the NSP should be an inspirational document that gives people a sense of how South Africa can come to grips with HIV, TB, and STIs. It needs to set out the key elements of our shared strategy in terms people outside of the HIV and TB worlds can understand and relate to. It might for example say something like the following:

“We will make it easier for people living with HIV to start taking HIV treatment and to stay on treatment. We will do this by offering everyone the option of home delivery of ARVs by no later than 2025. We will also give everyone enough pills for at least three months at a time. We will also allow and encourage pharmacists to prescribe antiretrovirals.”

“One reason why so many people die of TB in South Africa is that many people are never diagnosed, or are diagnosed too late. Most of the time healthcare workers only ask about symptoms and do not offer people TB tests. We will change this. From now on, everyone will be able to get at least one TB test per year if they want it.”

Ideally, the core of the NSP should be a document of one or two pages pitched at the level of the above paragraphs. It should be the kind of thing that can be printed on a poster and read and understood by anyone in two or three minutes.

How to write a work planAccording to the Department of Health, just over 208 000 cases of TB were diagnosed in South Africa in 2020. PHOTO: GCIS

Of course, we will also need supporting documents that rigorously set out the relevant scientific evidence, convincing reasoning behind the various elements of the strategy, realistic plans on how the interventions can be implemented in our resource-constrained setting (something that arguably was missing from the previous plan), and details on how progress will be measured. But essential as these supporting documents are, they are not the things that will make the plan resonate outside of HIV and TB circles.

Around 13% of South Africa’s population are living with HIV. Over 300 000 people are estimated to fall ill with TB every year, with many more getting infected, but not falling ill. One way to make the new NSP matter more than the previous one would be to write it with these people in mind, not just as passive recipients of government services, but as people who have a personal stake in the plans – and who might actually want to read and understand the NSP.